, 1998). Lactobacillus
paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 was isolated from human feces, and it is resistant to gastric juice and bile salt in the natural environment ( Lin et al., 2004). It also has probiotic characteristics that are effective in reducing cholesterol in blood and in the liver ( Chiu et al., 2006). L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 can upregulate the antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells and expression of natural killer group 2 D molecules capable of triggering natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in BALB/c mice ( Tsai et al., 2008). Hydrolysates of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 can induce proliferation of macrophages and splenocytes and a release of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-12 that modulate the innate and adaptive immunity buy Ceritinib and an inflammatory response ( Chiang et al., 2012a). Soy skim milk fermented by L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (NTU 101F milk), with or without
a Momordica charantia supplement, is effective at preventing and retarding hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic hamsters ( Tsai et al., 2009). This type of milk is also useful for prevention of acute gastric ulcers induced by pylorus ligation and acidified ethanol (via prostaglandin E2), and it significantly enhances superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity ( Liu et al., 2009). Moreover, NTU 101F milk can attenuate bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice ( Chiang and Pan, 2011) and aging-induced bone loss in BALB/c mice and can Endonuclease lower the risk of osteoporosis ( Chiang et al., 2012b). In addition, NTU 101F milk can upregulate and PF-562271 mw downregulate lipolysis and
heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase, respectively, in 3T3-L1 cells and can reduce obesity in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet ( Lee et al., 2013). Taken together, the above data show that intake of cultured probiotic L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 is likely to have various beneficial effects on the health of humans and animals. Hence, the safety of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 must be evaluated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the possible genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vigiis 101 powder made from L. paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101. In addition, we performed a 28-day oral toxicity assay in Wistar rats. Sodium azide, benzo[α]pyrene, mitomycin C, 2-aminofluorene, 2-amino-anthracene, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 9-aminoacridine, acridine orange, and cyclophosphamide monohydrate were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). The main media, including McCoy’s 5A medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin-streptomycin solution, minimal glucose agar plates, master plates, soft agar, and nutrient broth, were obtained from Biological Industries (Kibbutz Beit-HaEmek, North District, Israel). The probiotic used in this study was Vigiis 101 (SunWay Biotecn Co., Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan). Vigiis 101 is a dry powder which contains 6 billion bacteria of L.