, 2014) When facing an adverse challenge, in the form of the for

, 2014). When facing an adverse challenge, in the form of the forced swim test, mice that had experienced early life stress were quicker to adapt to the stressful experience compared with mice that had experienced a beneficial early care regime http://www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html (Santarelli et al.,

2014). Maternal separation in early life also had an enhancing effect on freezing behavior when rats were exposed to fear conditioning following a chronic stress paradigm in adulthood compared with non-maternally separated rats indicating the adverse experience of maternal separation had increased the adaptive response of the rats to stressful situations in adulthood and supporting the match/mismatch hypothesis

(Zalosnik this website et al., 2014). Taken together these studies may indicate that whilst early life stress causes long term changes in the HPA axis and stress response these may be designed to increase resilience of that individual to stress in later life but clearly more research is needed to verify the validity of the match/mismatch hypothesis. Resilience is of crucial importance for maintaining health throughout life. It may be regarded as an important factor in the mitigation of allostatic load, i.e. the slipping of homeostatic mechanisms due to genetic vulnerabilities in combination with the adversities of life (McEwen, 2001 and McEwen, 2012a). Research over the past seven decades has made it undeniably clear that glucocorticoid hormones play a pivotal role in processes underlying adaptation and resilience. Not surprisingly, glucocorticoid

function is highly regulated to safeguard the organism from hypo- as well as hyper-function of this steroid hormone. As illustrated in this article, the regulation of glucocorticoid function is taking place at multiple levels: 1. Through the tight control of biologically Rutecarpine available hormone for binding to MRs and GRs during baseline and stress conditions, and other physiological conditions like exercise, resulting in differential MR and GR occupancies. These hormone concentrations are kept in check within the HPA axis through intricate ultradian and circadian, feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms, and a plethora of HPA axis-afferent systems such as the sympathetic nervous system and the central aminergic systems; 2. Through the regulation of the concentration of MRs and GRs in various tissues during baseline and stress conditions and over the life span; 3. Through the fine-tuning of MR and GR activities by co-chaperone molecules like Fkbp5 and many other steroid receptor co-regulators; 4. Through interaction of MRs and GRs with activated or induced signaling molecules whose availability depends on the state of cellular activity.

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