This trial (Merck protocol V260-015) was funded by PATH’s Rotavirus Vaccine Program
under a grant from the GAVI Alliance and the trial was co-sponsored by Merck & Co. Inc. Conflict of interest statement: MC and MJD were employees of Merck when the study was conducted and owned equity in the company. No other conflicts of interest are declared. “
“Rotavirus (RV) is the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In Vietnam rotavirus causes an estimated 122,000–140,000 hospitalizations and 2900–5400 deaths per year among children under 5 years of age . Over the past 13 years, sentinel hospital surveillance identified rotavirus in 44–62% of children admitted for the treatment of acute diarrhea in Vietnam ,  and . Such a high burden of disease justified accelerated development of a new and locally manufactured vaccine Dolutegravir nmr against rotavirus in Vietnam. It is estimated that if a vaccine was introduced in the current childhood immunization schedule, it could reduce severe rotavirus disease by about 60% or more given current vaccine efficacies and coverage . The Government of Vietnam has pursued a policy to encourage local vaccine Forskolin mouse production so the country could be self-reliant with affordable
vaccines for its population . Over the past decades, several locally produced vaccines for poliomyelitis, cholera, Japanese encephalitis, and Diphtheria–Pertussis–Tetanus have contributed to the reduction in the prevalence of these diseases and to the status of poliomyelitis-free. While two commercial rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix™ (GSK, Belgium)
and RotaTeq® (Merck), have both been tested in Vietnam, only Rotarix™ is currently available in private market. The liquid formula Resminostat of Rotarix when tested in two schedules, 1-month and 2-month interval between doses compared with placebo control in 375 children had a seroconversion rate of 63.3% and 81.5%, respectively . RotaTeq showed a seroconversion rate of 87.8% and an overall efficacy of 63.9% (72.3% in the first year and 64.6% in the 2nd year following-up) in a phase 3 efficacy trial in Vietnam . However, neither of the two vaccines is currently available at an affordable price for the national program (e.g. Rotarix in the private market costs US $35 per dose). Therefore, the candidate vaccine, Rotavin-M1, was developed in order to fill this need for a more affordable vaccine for Vietnamese children . This vaccine is similar to Rotarix™, and was developed by selecting a common G1P  strain and attenuating it through serial passages and plaque purification in qualified Vero cells under GLP conditions. In this study, we sought to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Rotavin-M1 produced by the Center for Research and Production of Vaccines and Biologicals (POLYVAC) in adult volunteers and in infants in Vietnam.