Measurements of serum anti-rotavirus IgA and/or SNA, are however, considered as the standard for assessing immune response Small molecule library following rotavirus vaccination , ,  and . Immune responses to primary rotavirus infection are known to be largely homotypic, and SNA responses that occur after natural rotavirus infections in children are usually
serotype specific. Hence, the measurement of SNA response to each of the rotavirus serotype contained in PRV may provide a better measure of the protection than serum anti-rotavirus IgA . In this study, the immune response to vaccination was assessed in approximately 360 infants whose blood was collected at baseline (pD1) and 14 days after the third vaccine dose (PD3). The observation that the anti-rotavirus IgA sero-response rate was similarly high in subjects in each of the African sites (Kenya, FK228 in vivo 73.8%; Ghana, 78.9%; Mali, 82.5%) indicates a consistent immune response to the vaccine among infants from the participating countries. Although the anti-rotavirus IgA sero-response rates were high and consistent across the region, they were approximately 10–15 percentage points lower than those observed in other regions of the world , , , ,  and . It is important to note that oral vaccines have traditionally been less immunogenic in developing world countries ,  and . The reason for this may be due to a combination
of the differences in host populations and associated health conditions, including malnutrition, maternal antibody, HIV infection and concomitant infections of the gut with Histone demethylase other enteropathogens . Similarly, the observed PD3 serum anti-rotavirus IgA and SNA GMT levels were lower in the African subjects when compared to those of subjects in developed countries. The GMT (28.2
dilution units) of the serum anti-rotavirus IgA at PD3 of African subjects was 5- to 10-times lower than those measured 14 or 42 days after Dose 3 in subjects in developed countries , , , , ,  and . A consistent and similar pattern was observed when the data was evaluated by each African country. The significance of the reduced PD3 anti-rotavirus IgA GMT levels in African infants when compared to similar studies in developed countries is still not well understood because of the lack of an appropriate immune correlate of protection. This study offers some insights into this phenomenon. One reason that has been alluded to for the observed low immunogenicity may be the younger age of infants vaccinated in this study as compared to studies in developed countries  and . However, post hoc analyses revealed that the rotavirus-specific immune responses for subjects who received vaccine dose 1 at less than 6 weeks of age was generally similar to those of subjects who were 6–12 weeks old although the numbers of subjects are low (data not shown).