For example, considering the retention index and mass spectrum, p

For example, considering the retention index and mass spectrum, peak #18 corresponds to an 8-carbon aliphatic acid, but not exact identification could be attributed. Also in seven chromatographic BKM120 chemical structure peaks no identification was possible. Since these unidentified or partially identified peaks could be related to the sensorial properties of the samples and, therefore, could be significant to the PLS models, it was retained on the input data. Most of these compounds had already been identified in previous studies on the composition of the volatile

fraction of Pilsner beers and can be related to the brewing process. After GA variable selection, 11 variables were selected for the bitterness parameter (Table 1). This corresponds to a reduction of approximately 80% of the 54 original variables. Also in Table 1, the selected peaks by OPS method to the bitterness parameter are presented. Here, it was pointed out 17 variables, representing a reduction of approximately this website 68.5% of the original variables. In the OPS selection, it was evaluated different informative

vectors and combinations of vectors such as the regression (R), the root square (S) error, the net analyte signal (NAS) vectors, and combinations of NAS and S (NS) vectors and R and S (RS) vectors. Comparing the results from all of them evaluating the RMSECV and the correlation coefficients of the obtained models, the best result was obtained utilizing the NS combination

vector. From the selected peaks by the GA and OPS approaches, seven were pointed out commonly. It corresponds to approximately 64% of agreement in the selection performed by OPS relating to the one carried out by the GA. The Table 2 presents some parameters of the best models to the GA and OPS selection methods. Considering the selected peaks commonly pointed out by both approaches, the compounds probably closed related with the bitterness attribute are ethyl acetate, 1-octanol, p-vinylguaiacol, γ-nonalactone, β-phenylethyl butyrate, caryophyllene oxide and dibutylphthalate. Using only these Carbohydrate selected variables, it is possible to study the bitterness attribute, since really relevant information was captured. This means that the selected variables are the ones that are directly related to the bitterness quality parameter. It is important to emphasise that in most models obtained by OPS method utilizing other informative vectors, even among other variables, the compounds cited above were always selected. Ethyl acetate (#3 in Table 1) is an ester derived from ethanol and acetic acid and, as with most esters; it is correlated with the freshness and fruitiness of young beers (Wampler, Washall, & Matheson, 1996). 1-Octanol (#14 in Table 1) has also already been reported in the volatile fraction of beer (Pinho et al., 2006).

A digital potentiometer (Mod 8603,

Mettler-Toledo, Scherz

A digital potentiometer (Mod.8603,

Mettler-Toledo, Scherzenbach, Switzerland) was used for pH measurements. All analyses were duplicated. The CFU counts (log10 CFU/ml) were determined in triplicate. S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were respectively plated onto M17 lactose agar and MRS agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK), previously acidified to pH 5.4 with acetic acid. B. lactis was enumerated in RCA (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) treated with 2 μg/ml of dicloxacillin (pH 7.1) and 0.3 g/l of aniline blue (InLab, São Paulo, Brazil). They were incubated at 37 °C for 48 h under anaerobic conditions (AnaeroGen, Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). CFU were counted after anaerobic incubation at 37 °C for 72 h mTOR inhibitor of at least four replicates. The lipids were extracted from organic and conventional UHT milks, yogurts and probiotic fermented milks, according to the ISO method 14156 (ISO, 2001), which is a dedicated method for extraction or separation

of lipids and liposoluble see more compounds from milk and milk products. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of milk lipids were prepared by transesterification according to the ISO method 15884 (ISO, 2002), that consists of a base-catalyzed methanolysis of the glycerides, followed by a neutralization with crystalline sodium hydrogen sulfate to avoid saponification of esters. Analyses of FAME were carried out in a gas chromatograph, model 3400CX (Varian, Walnut Creek, CA, USA) equipped with a split-injection port, a flame-ionisation

detector and a software package for system control PAK6 and data acquisition (model Star Chromatography Workstation version 5.5). Injections were performed in a 30 m long fused silica capillary column with 0.25 mm internal diameter, coated with 0.25 μm Chrompack CP-Wax 52CB (ChromTech, Apple Valley MN, USA). Helium was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min−1 and a split ratio of 1:50. The injector temperature was set at 250 °C and the detector at 280 °C. The oven temperature was initially set at 75 °C for 3 min, then programmed to increase to 150 °C at a rate of 37.5 °C min−1, and then to 215 °C at a rate of 3 °C min−1 (Luna et al., 2004). Samples (1 μl) were injected manually after a dwell-time of ca 2 s. Qualitative fatty acid composition of the samples was determined by comparing the retention times of the peaks with those of standards 05632 and 189-19 (Sigma, Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA). The relative content of each FAME was calculated from the area of each peak, and expressed as a percentage, according to the official method, Ce 1–62 ( AOCS, 1997).

The consumption levels and the consumer’s weights were obtained f

The consumption levels and the consumer’s weights were obtained from several sources; “The national Findiet 2007 Survey”, “The

Diet of Finnish Preschoolers” and “Finnish Nutrition Recommendations 2005” (KTL-National Public Health Institute, 2008a, KTL-National Public Health Institute, 2008b and National Nutrition Council of Finland, 2005). C59 mouse All the assessments and consumption data involved only the people who use these rice products. The ICP-MS-method for the determination of elements (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium) has been in use in Evira for several years. It has been validated and has a flexible scope accredited status. Several independent exercises (including one done for arsenic in rice

flour during this study) have demonstrated click here its applicability for other matrices as well. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for arsenic are 0.005 mg/kg and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. The method uncertainty for arsenic was 18%, repeatability was 13% and reproducibility was 11%. We validated and accredited the arsenic speciation method for rice. The limit of quantification and the limit of detection for inorganic arsenic were 0.06 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg, respectively and the overall uncertainty of the method was 25%. The repeatability, reproducibility and trueness of the method for inorganic arsenic are summarised in Table 1. These figures reveal that the method is highly repeatable (CV 11% at the level of 0.08 – 0.11 mg/kg) and reproducibility is also good (on average CV 8%). The method trueness was determined using the test material IMEP-107, a material used in one interlaboratory comparison. No certified reference

materials are available for inorganic arsenic species of rice. The trueness of the method is very good if compared to the results achieved in interlaboratory comparison. Examples of a sample chromatogram, a standard chromatogram and a blank chromatogram are in Fig. 1. The total arsenic content of long grain rice samples analysed in this study varied from 0.11 to 0.65 mg/kg (n = 8) and the average amount Rolziracetam of total arsenic in long grain rice samples was 0.25 mg/kg ( Table 2). The average amount of inorganic arsenic was 0.16 mg/kg, ranging from 0.09 to 0.28 mg/kg. The relative value of the total arsenic in its inorganic forms has varied from 34 to 110%, the average being 74%. AB and MMA were not detected in any of the long grain rice samples. The arsenic species detected in the rice samples were DMA, As(III) and As(V). Both Pearson and Spearman correlation tests demonstrated a significant correlation between total and inorganic arsenic levels in long grain rice at the confidence level 95% (Pearson correlation p = 0.016, Spearman correlation p = 0.043). The total arsenic content of rice based baby food products was 0.

Tier 2 studies would be those using existing samples or data to e

Tier 2 studies would be those using existing samples or data to evaluate an a priori formulated hypothesis, where the biomonitoring this website strategy was not specifically designed for this purpose. In Tier 3 studies, the research relies on existing samples or data without a pre-specified hypothesis or involves multiple simultaneous hypothesis testing. We recognize that at present, the research rationale for most biomonitoring studies involving short-lived chemicals will be described as Tier 3 studies. Evaluative schemes for participant selection apply to studies of both persistent and short-lived

chemicals. The goal of participant selection in epidemiological research is to build a “bridge” between information that is obtainable from the sample and information sought about the target population (Kalsbeek and Heiss, 2000). The actual process

of selecting an unbiased population sample is an ongoing challenge in case–control, longitudinal (cohort) and cross-sectional studies (Vandenbroucke et al., 2007). The issue of participant selection is not unique to epidemiological research of short-lived chemicals. Yet biomonitoring studies may not pay sufficient attention to this problem. Previous reviews of biomonitoring studies presented evidence that selection bias may represent an important threat to internal validity (Bull et al., 2006 and Faust

et al., 2004). The same concerns are also applicable to biomonitoring studies of Venetoclax price short-lived chemicals such as phthalates (Durmaz et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2013 and Wirth et al., 2008). Tier 1 studies include an unbiased selection and/or follow up protocol with a high (e.g., over 80%) response rate in cross-sectional or case–control studies, or low (e.g., less than 20%) loss to follow up in cohort studies. Tier 2 studies have an unbiased selection/follow up protocol and a low (e.g., 50%–80%) response rate in cross-sectional or case–control studies, or high (e.g., 20%–50%) loss to follow up in cohort studies. Tier 3 studies are those that include less than 50% of eligible participants, or fail to report methods of sample Exoribonuclease selection and/or rates of non-response or loss to follow up. A study that does not report this information should be assumed to be a Tier 3 study. It is important to keep in mind that a low response rate or a high frequency of loss to follow-up should not be equated with selection bias. Selection bias occurs when the proportions of persons included in the final dataset (a.k.a. selection probabilities) differ by both exposure and outcome (e.g., among exposed cases, non-exposed cases, exposed non-cases and non-exposed non-cases.

They were also somewhat more likely to shift their gaze to the pa

They were also somewhat more likely to shift their gaze to the patient earlier after neutral primes than passive primes (the second contrast in the interaction of Prime condition with Time bin). Experiment 2 showed effects of non-relational and relational variables on both sentence form and sentence formulation that were similar to those used in Experiment 1. With respect to sentence form, the results showed the expected robust effects of character accessibility and structural priming.

Properties of agents were again strong predictors of sentence form, Navitoclax order consistent with linear incrementality. The structural priming manipulation showed that sentence form was also influenced by changes in the ease of deploying abstract structure-building procedures, and again, the primes differed in their priming ability: speakers produced a comparable number of active sentences after active primes and neutral primes, whereas only passive primes reliably reduced production of actives. Effects of the active primes were limited to items with “harder” agents, or items where properties of the

agent favored selection of a passive structure rather than the preferred active structure. Thus as in Experiment 1, the asymmetry in priming effects Selleck INK-128 is consistent with earlier observations that generation of a frequent structure is influenced by priming to a lesser degree than generation of an infrequent structure. More importantly, the timecourse of formulation again showed sensitivity to the ease of encoding non-relational and relational information. First, the analysis of first fixations showed that the degree to which speakers began sentences with the first-fixated character depended on higher-level factors. The suitability of a character for subjecthood depended

on the ease of encoding the event and the ease of constructing a suitable sentence structure: first-fixated characters were less likely to become subjects in “easier” events than “harder” events and in structurally primed sentences than unprimed sentences. Thus overall, the influence of visual information on selection of a starting point was relatively weak: although speakers may begin sentences with the first-fixated character in subject Proton pump inhibitor position (Experiment 1, linear incrementality), sentence form is also the product of more complex interactions between lower-level perceptual factors and higher-level relational factors (Experiment 2, hierarchical incrementality). Second, timecourse analyses showed a strong influence of variables influencing encoding of relational information and a weaker effect of variables influencing encoding of non-relational information. Effects of Event and Agent codability (Table 5) were comparable to those in Experiment 1 (Table 3), as the two experiments used similar items.

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded with a Bru

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded with a Bruker ARX-600 (Bruker Co., Karlsruhe, Germany) (1H, 600 MHz; 13C, 150 MHz) spectrometer in C5D5N with tetramethylsilane as internal standard. Infrared (IR) spectra on a Bruker Inter-Frame Space (IFS)-55 infrared spectrophotometer (Bruker Co., Karlsruhe, Germany) were recorded in Potassium bromide (KBr) disks. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra (HRESIMS) were recorded on an Agilent 1100 LC-MSD (Mass Spectrometer Detector) TOF (time-of-flight)

system (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, USA) [ionization mode, positive; nebulizing gas (N2) pressure, 35 psi; drying gas (N2) flow, 12 L/min; temp, 325°C; selleckchem capillary voltage, 3,000 V; fragmentor voltage, 225 V]. Gas chromatography

(GC) was performed on the Agilent technologies 6890N apparatus (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, USA) with an OV-17 column (30 m × 0.32 mm). The column temperature was programmed from 80°C to 280°C at a rate of 10°C/min. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas at 1.5 mL/min. The injector see more and detector temperature was at 280°C and the injection volume was 1 μL with the split ratio being 10:1. All chemicals and solvents were analytical or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade and purchased from Lab Co. Ltd. (Lab Science and Trade Co., Ltd, Shenyang, China). Reversed-phase preparative HPLC was carried out on an octadecyl silica column [YMC-Pack Octadecylsilyl (ODS) A (YMC Co., Kyoto, Japan) (250 mm × 10 mm, 5 μm)] at 25°C at a flow rate of 3.0 mL/min with the eluent MeOH/H2O 66:34 (HPLC system I), 70:30 (HPLC system II), 75:25 (HPLC system III), 80:20 (HPLC system IV), 82:18 (HPLC system Celecoxib V), or 9:1 (HPLC system VI). Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric detection was carried out at 203 nm. P. notoginseng leaves were from

the Yunnan province of the People’s Republic of China and identified by Professor Jincai Lu of Shenyang Pharmaceutical University. Air-dried P. notoginseng leaves (35 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol (2 × 350 L) and then evaporated under vacuum at 30°C. Ethanol extracts (1.6 kg) were applied on a macroporous resin column (10.5 kg) preconditioned with distilled water. Elution began with water to remove impurities and then with 70% ethanol (100 L) to isolate the saponin fraction, which was dried with a spray dryer to yield the total saponins (1 kg). The total saponin (1 kg) was fractionated by silica gel column (300 mm × 1,600 mm, 30 kg) using a gradient of CH2Cl2/CH3OH (7:1 350 L−4:1 350 L−3:1 350 L) and CH3OH (300 L) to obtain 10 fractions, A−J. Fraction A (18 g) was subjected to chromatography on silica gel (70 mm × 800 mm, 400 g) and then eluted with ligarine and acetone in increasing polarity to yield 10 fractions, A1−A10, compounds 15 (20 mg), 16 (10 mg), and 17 (20 mg).

Whenever instruments larger than #60 were required, stainless ste

Whenever instruments larger than #60 were required, stainless steel Flexofile instruments (Dentsply-Maillefer) were used. Patency of the apical foramen was confirmed with a small file (#15 or #20 NitiFlex) throughout the procedures and after each file size. Preparation was completed by using step-back of 1-mm increments. The irrigant used was 2.5% NaOCl solution. A 27-gauge needle was used to deliver 2 mL of NaOCl after each instrument size. Each canal

was dried by using sterile paper points and then flushed with 5 mL of 5% sodium thiosulfate to inactivate any residual NaOCl. Subsequently, the root canal walls were gently filed, and a postinstrumentation sample (S2) was taken from the canal as outlined above. Smear layer was removed by rinsing the canal with 3 mL of 17% EDTA and then leaving the canal Selleck GDC 0068 filled with this solution for 3 minutes. After irrigation with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, the canal was dried with

sterile paper points and medicated with either CHG (n = 12) or CHPG (n = 12) paste. The paste was placed in the canals by means of lentulo spiral fillers and Selleckchem PLX-4720 packed with a cotton pellet at the level of canal entrance. A radiograph was taken to ensure proper placement of the calcium hydroxide paste in the canal. Access cavities were filled with at least 4-mm thickness of a temporary cement (Coltosol; Coltène/Whaledent Inc, Cuyahoga Falls, OH). Seven days later, the tooth was isolated with a rubber dam, the operative field was cleaned and disinfected, and the NaOCl was neutralized, as outlined earlier. A sterility control sample of the operative field was obtained. The temporary filling was removed, and the calcium hydroxide paste was rinsed out of the canal by using sterile saline solution and the master apical file. The root canal walls were gently filed, and a postmedication sample (S3) was taken as above. Subsequently, the canals were filled with gutta-percha Bacterial neuraminidase and sealer by the lateral compaction technique, and the tooth was temporized with glass ionomer cement. Clinical

samples were brought to room temperature, and DNA was extracted by using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), following the protocol recommended by the manufacturer. DNA from a panel of several oral bacterial species was also prepared to serve as controls (19). Aliquots of extracted DNA were used in 16S rRNA gene-based PCR protocols with universal primers for members of the domains Bacteria (8f: 5′ – AGA GTT TGA TYM TGG C – 3′ and 1492r: 5′ – GYT ACC TTG TTA CGA CTT – 3′) (20) or Archaea (333f: 5′ – TCC AGG CCC TAC GGG – 3′ and 934r: 5′ – GTG CTC CCC CGC CAA TTC CT – 3′) 21 and 22 and in a 18S rRNA gene-based PCR assay with universal primers for fungi (domain Eukarya) (B2f: 5′ – ACT TTC GAT GGT AGG ATA G – 3′ and B4r: 5′ – TGA TCR TCT TCG ATC CCC TA – 3′) (23).

Pathologic findings were graded according to a 5-point semi-quant

Pathologic findings were graded according to a 5-point semi-quantitative severity-based scoring system as: 0 = normal lung parenchyma, 1 = changes in 1–25%, 2 = changes in 26–50%, 3 = changes in 51–75%, and 4 = changes in 76–100% of examined tissue (Araújo et al., 2010 and Chao et al., 2010). For recipients of GFP marrow transplants, frozen sections were treated with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI)-supplemented mounting medium (Vectashield, Vector Labs, Burlingame, CA), cover slipped and examined for GFP expression by confocal microscopy. Background autofluorescence find more was determined through examination

of 10 simultaneously prepared negative control sections that were stained with DAPI alone. Images were obtained Obeticholic Acid using a Zeiss LSM-410 laser-scanning confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON, Canada) equipped with GFP (green) and DAPI (blue) filter sets. The number of GFP+ cells per tissue area was determined by the point-counting technique (Weibel, 1990, Araújo et al., 2010 and Abreu et al., 2011) across 10 random, non-coincident microscopic fields. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used in a blinded fashion by two pathologists to assay cellular apoptosis (Oliveira et al., 2009). Ten fields per section from the regions with cell apoptosis were examined at a magnification of 400×. A 5-point semi-quantitative

severity-based scoring system was used to assess the degree of apoptosis, graded as: 0 = normal lung parenchyma; 1 = 1–25%, 2 = 26–50%, 3 = 51–75%, and 4 = 76–100% of examined tissue. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to measure the relative levels of mRNA expression of vascular interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, platelet derived growth

Tideglusib factor (PDGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Central slices of left lung were cut, collected in cryotubes, quick-frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80 °C. Total RNA was extracted from the frozen tissues, using Trizol® reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. RNA concentration was measured by spectrophotometry in Nanodrop® ND-1000. First-strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). PCR primers for target gene were purchased (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Relative mRNA levels were measured with a SYBR green detection system using ABI 7500 Real-Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). All samples were measured in triplicate. The relative expression of each gene was calculated as a ratio of studied gene to control gene (acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 [36B4]) and expressed as fold change relative to Sham-SAL. The following PCR primers were used: PDGF (NM_008808.

Akt is also a key antiapoptotic effector of cellular growth facto

Akt is also a key antiapoptotic effector of cellular growth factors [35]. PI3K activation by growth factors leads to Akt activation, which is an important player in survival pathway [36]. Some studies have shown

that Akt suppresses apoptosis signaling via BCL2 induction [27], and p-p53 inhibition through MDM2 activation [37]. Previously, KRG was shown to upregulate PI3K/Akt signaling and to inhibit apoptosis via Akt inhibitor the regulation of BCL2 and caspase-3 expression, thus protecting endothelial cells from starvation [38]. Moreover, Panax notoginseng saponins inhibit ischemia-induced apoptosis by stimulating PI3K/Akt signaling in cardiomyocytes [39]. However, the mechanism by which KRG activates PI3K/Akt signal via ER-β under oxidative stress in brain cells has been unclear until now. In this study,

we demonstrated that KRG increases PI3K/Akt signaling via upregulation of ER-β, thus inhibiting apoptosis through p-p53 and caspase-3 downregulation and BCL2 induction in oxidatively stressed brain cells. Excitotoxicity Anticancer Compound Library manufacturer is the pathological process caused by neurotransmitter glutamate such as n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid [40]. These excitotoxins bind to glutamate receptor and result in increase of intracellular Ca2+. Subsequently, overload of intracellular Ca2+ stimulates activation of enzymes comprising calpains, which are the ubiquitously expressed family of Ca2+-dependent proteases cAMP [40]; thus these enzymes can damage

cellular structures such as cytoskeleton, and are important for apoptosis and necrosis. Estrogen induced ER-α inhibited excitotoxicity via downregulating calpain expression [41]. In addition, ER-β play an important role in estrogenic neuroprotection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity [42]. Red ginseng extract was reported to have neuroprotective activity against kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by inhibition of ROS level [40]. Moreover, ginsenoside Rg3 exhibited neuroprotection against homocysteine-induced excitotoxicity via inhibition of homocysteine-mediated NMDA receptor activation [43]. Our results showed that KRG increases ER-β expression and provides ER-β mediated-neuroprotection. Taken together, KRG-induced ER-β seems to play some role in protection against excitotoxicity. However, further studies are necessary for elucidation of the underlying mechanism. Ginsenosides are structurally similar to glucocorticoids or estrogens. In agreement, ginsenosides Re and Rg1 are functional ligands of the glucocorticoid receptor, whereas ginsenosides Rb1 and Rh1 are functional ligands of the ER [44]. Ginseng was also shown to activate ER in breast cancer cells in vitro but not in vivo [19]. Previously, we found that the ER-α expression was not affected in vitro by oxidative stress nor by KRG treatment, thus ERα would not be predicted to play a major role in oxidative stress in the brain [17].

Many bioactive constituents are present in ginseng extracts, and

Many bioactive constituents are present in ginseng extracts, and ginsenosides, the main constituents of ginseng, are believed to have antiallergic, antioxidant, and immune-stimulatory activities [3]. The two traditional preparations of Korean ginseng, white ginseng (WG) and red ginseng (RG), are presumed to have different bioactivities in traditional medicine. WG is produced by the sun drying of fresh ginseng, whereas RG is manufactured by steaming fresh

ginseng and then drying it to a moisture content of < 15% [4]. Many researchers have reported that Trametinib molecular weight the steaming process increases the bioactivity of ginseng [4], [5] and [6]. Few comparative studies have been conducted on the effects of WG check details and RG on various diseases. Asthma is a serious health problem and affects people of all ages, and its most common trigger is continuous exposure to allergens [7]. Allergic asthma is characterized by increased mucus production, reversible airway obstruction, eosinophil infiltration, and nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) [8]. The development of asthma is mediated by the overexpression of T helper type 2 (Th2)-mediated or Th1-mediated cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, etc. [8] and [9]. However, currently available therapies cannot completely

control the symptoms of asthma, and even intensive treatment shows little effect on healthcare utilization [10]. Consequently, efforts are

required to identify new remedies, preferably of natural origin, for mitigating the effects of these immune-related disorders. P. ginseng is one of most commonly used medicinal herbs to complement the treatment of asthma, allergies, and immunologic conditions [11]. Several researchers have reported that P. ginseng ameliorates asthma in animal models [12] and [13], but to date, the effects of processing on its medicinal effects have not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, we compared the effects of Tangeritin WG and RG in a mouse model of acute asthma. In previous studies we reported that herbal remedies offer potential complementary or alternative treatments and showed that the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance could provide a strategy for the treatment of respiratory diseases [14] and [15]. In this study, we investigated the effects of WG and RG on the infiltration of inflammatory cells, on airway remodeling, and on expressions of inflammation-related cytokines in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model of acute asthma. Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice (Daehan Biolink, Chungbuk, Korea) were housed in polypropylene cages at 24 ± 4°C under a 12 h light and dark cycle for at least 1 week prior to experiments. Animals were fed with a standard pellet diet and supplied water ad libitum.