Those who presented glucose >= 140 mg/dl

Those who presented glucose >= 140 mg/dl selleck inhibitor showed higher rates of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (28% vs. 18%, P = .001), complicative bundle branch block (5% vs. 2%, P = .005), new atrioventricular block (9% vs. 5%, P

= .05) and in-hospital mortality (15% vs. 5%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that those with glycemia >= 140 mg/dl exhibited a 2-fold increase of in-hospital mortality risk (95% CI: 1.2-3.5, P = .008) irrespective of diabetes mellitus status (P-value for interaction = 0.487 and 0.653, respectively).

Conclusions: Stress hyperglycemia on admission is a predictor of mortality and arrhythmias in patients with STEMI and could be used in the stratification of risk in these patients. Full English text available from: (C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Preclinical evidence of the preventive benefits of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in breast cancer continues to fuel interest in selleckchem the potential role of dietary fat content in reducing breast cancer risk. The dose of fish-oil/omega-3

PUFAs needed to achieve maximal target tissue effects for breast cancer prevention remains undefined.

Objective: To determine the dose effects of omega-3 fatty acids on breast adipose tissue fatty acid profiles, we conducted a study of 4 doses of omega-3 PUFAs in women at high risk of breast cancer.

Design: Bafilomycin A1 manufacturer In this 6-mo randomized open-label study,

48 women with increased breast cancer risk received 1, 3, 6, or 9 capsules/d of an omega-3 PUFA supplement that provided 0.84, 2.52, 5.04, and 7.56 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) daily, respectively. Subjects made monthly visits, at which time pill counts were made and fasting blood samples were collected to determine fatty acid profiles; anthropometric measurements were made, breast adipose tissue samples were collected, and laboratory tests of toxicity (alanine aminotransferase, LDL cholesterol, and platelet function) were made at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo.

Results: All doses led to increased serum and breast adipose tissue EPA and DHA concentrations, but the response to 0.84 g DHA+EPA/d was less than the maximum possible response with >= 2.52 g/d. Body mass index attenuated the dose response for serum tissue DHA and EPA (P = 0.015 and 0.027, respectively) and breast adipose tissue DHA (P = 0.0022) in all of the treatment groups. The incremental increase in DHA and EPA correlated inversely with baseline fat and serum values. Compliance over 6 mo was 92.9 +/- 9.2% and was unaffected by treatment arm. No severe or serious toxicities were reported.

Conclusions: Daily doses up to 7.56 g DHA+EPA were well tolerated with excellent compliance in this cohort at high risk of breast cancer.

Institutions continue to employ more “”traditional”" sterile prep

Institutions continue to employ more “”traditional”" sterile preparation with similar procedures in the operating room. Multiple studies have

also shown no significant difference in postoperative course when preoperative antibiotics are administered for sinus procedures.

Methods: Endoscopic sinus procedures were selected (58 patients) to analyze itemized sterile costs. Drapes, gloves, gowns, and antibiotics, were then tallied and compared to the same items for cochlear implants (14 procedures). The “”sterile-prep”" time was also analyzed and compared between the two procedures. Cost difference was analyzed.

Results: Comparing the supplies used for sinus procedures (56) and cochlear implants, our average sinus cost was $10.19, compared to $34.64, with a difference of $24.45. This equated to a savings selleck compound of $1418.00 in sinus procedure supplies that year. The difference in draping

and scrubbing time showed a difference this website of 20 min between groups, equaling a value of $1760 difference/case. This calculated to a savings of $10,2080 for sinus operating room time. There was no difference in patient outcomes with this surgical preparatory approach.

Conclusion: Our analysis showed a large cost savings over a fiscal year in operative time and supplies. This did not compromise any patient outcomes given the already non-sterile nature of endoscopic sinus surgery. This practice can be adopted to greatly enhance efficiency without sacrificing surgical results. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“To investigate the prevalence of ATPIII- and IDF-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an Irish screening population and to determine the calculated cardiovascular risk for each group.

A total of 1,716 subjects were enrolled over 4EGI-1 nmr a 12-month period.

The ATPIII-defined prevalence of MetS in this population

was 13.2%. Using IDF criteria, 21.4% of subjects were identified as having the MetS. Correlation between the two definitions was high; however, IDF criteria identified an additional 9.5% (n = 164) of the population as having MetS, which ATPIII criteria failed to recognise.

We noted a higher prevalence of MetS in the studied population when defined by IDF criteria. However, those identified by IDF and not by ATPIII definition did not have a higher cardiovascular risk score by either Framingham or European Score than those without MetS. Thus, application of the ATPIII definition of MetS, may be the more practical.”
“Objective: To describe the development and challenges of a pharmacist-directed peer support program among adolescents with diabetes.

Practice description: The program was designed as adjunctive therapy for adolescents receiving care at the Diabetes Education and Research Center (DERC). DERC is an interdisciplinary facility at which the clinical pharmacist provides direct, diabetes-related patient care services.

Conclusions: PH has a negative impact on exercise capacity in IPF

Conclusions: PH has a negative impact on exercise capacity in IPF patients. In IPF patients with PH, resting sPAP correlated with exercise parameters indicative of gas exchange and circulatory impairment, but not with defective lung mechanics.”
“Background: Usher syndrome Type 3 (USH3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable type and degree of progressive

sensorineural hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Cochlear implants are widely used among these patients.

Objectives: To evaluate the results and benefits of cochlear implantation in patients with USH3.

Study Design: A nationwide multicenter retrospective review.

Materials and Methods: During the years 1995-2005, in 5 Finnish university GSK690693 solubility dmso hospitals, 19 patients with USH3 received a cochlear implant. Saliva samples were collected to verify the USH3 genotype. Patients answered to 3 questionnaires: Glasgow Benefit Inventory, Glasgow Health Status Inventory, and a self-made questionnaire. Audiological data were collected from patient records.

Results: All the patients with USH3 in the study were homozygous for the Finnish major mutation (p.Y176X). Either they had severe sensorineural hearing loss or they were profoundly deaf.

The mean preoperative hearing level (pure-tone average, 0.5-4 kHz) was 110 +/- 8 dB hearing loss (HL) and the mean aided hearing level was 58 +/- 11 dB HL. The postoperative hearing level (34 +/- 9 dB HL) and word recognition scores were significantly better than before surgery. According to the Glasgow Benefit Inventory scores and Glasgow

Health Selleck Z-VAD-FMK Status BAY 73-4506 supplier Inventory data related to hearing, the cochlear implantation was beneficial to patients with USH3.

Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is beneficial to patients with USH3, and patients learn to use the implant without assistance.”
“Aim: As recent clinical data suggest a harmful effect of arterial hyperoxia on patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), we aimed to investigate this association during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the earliest and one of the most crucial phases of recirculation.

Methods: We analysed 1015 patients who from 2003 to 2010 underwent out-of-hospital CPR administered by emergency medical services serving 300,000 inhabitants. Inclusion criteria for further analysis were nontraumatic background of CA and patients >18 years of age. One hundred and forty-five arterial blood gas analyses including oxygen partial pressure (paO2) measurement were obtained during CPR.

Results: We observed a highly significant increase in hospital admission rates associated with increases in paO2 in steps of 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa).

Subsequently, data were clustered according to previously described cutoffs (<= 60 mmHg [8 kPa]], 61-300 mmHg [8.1-40 kPa], >300 mmHg [>40 kPa]).

“Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of be

“Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of berberine on the two human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines PF 00299804 OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 in relation

to the potential usefulness of berberine in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Methods: Under adherent culture conditions, the cell lines were treated with berberine and analyzed for changes in cell growth. The cell cycle duration and degree of apoptosis were evaluated by means of propidium iodide staining and Annexin V staining.

Results: After the berberine treatment, the two cell lines showed a dose-dependent reduction in the growth rate. In the cell cycle analysis, the OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells showed an increased DNA content of 5% in the G2/M phase and 7% in the S phase, respectively. Additionally, the results confirm the cell cycle arrest by immunoblotting and the up-regulation of p27; however, in the apoptosis analysis, neither cell line showed an increase in apoptosis after the berberine Rapamycin order treatment.

Conclusion: Berberine treatment can inhibit proliferation through a cell cycle arrest in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells. Thus, berberine may be a novel anticancer drug

for the treatment of ovarian cancer.”
“BACK GROUND: For high-risk patients who do not achieve guideline-recommended LDL-C levels, more intensive treatment including statin-uptitration to higher doses or potency, as well as combination therapy may be considered. A better understanding of statin treatment patterns in real-world clinical practice may contribute to improved lipid-lowering management in these patients.

OBJECTIVE: We determined treatment pattern changes among patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease who were not at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal on statin mTOR inhibitor monotherapy.

METHODS: Treatment pattern changes were evaluated among patients newly initiated on statins between January 1, 2006, and August 31, 2009, in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Rates and mean time to first and second treatment changes were examined in patients with claims for coronary heart disease (CHD), atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), and diabetes mellitus during 12 months before index, who were not at LDL-C <70 mg/dL

at their first-eligible LDL-C test (>= 4 weeks after index). Therapy change was assessed for 12 months after the LDL-C result.

RESULTS: Of 11,473 eligible subjects, 61.3% had diabetes, 26.6% had CHD and AVD, and 12.1% had CHD and AVD and diabetes. At index, patients were prescribed medium-potency levels of statins, including simvastatin (44.7%), atorvastatin (31.5%), and other statins (23.8%). Mean +/- SD LDL-C before statin initiation was 138 34 mg/dL, and at the first-eligible LDL-C result after index, it was 101 25 mg/dL. During follow-up, 7444 subjects (64.9%) experienced a first treatment change, with mean time to change of 93.8 +/- 92. days, whereas 4029 (36.1%) had no treatment change. Discontinuation of index therapy occurred in 46.

Australopithecus afarensis (3 7-3 0 Ma) is the earliest known spe

Australopithecus afarensis (3.7-3.0 Ma) is the earliest known species of the australopith grade in which the adult cranial base can be assessed comprehensively. This region of the adult skull was known from B-Raf inhibition fragments in the 1970s, but renewed fieldwork beginning in the 1990s at the Hadar site, Ethiopia (3.4-3.0 Ma), recovered two nearly complete crania and major

portions of a third, each associated with a mandible. These new specimens confirm that in small-brained, bipedal Australopithecus the foramen magnum and occipital condyles were anteriorly sited, as in humans, but without the foramen’s forward inclination. In the large male A.L. 444-2 this is associated with a short basal axis, a bilateral expansion of the base, and an inferiorly rotated, flexed

occipital squama-all derived characters shared by later australopiths and humans. However, in A. L. 822-1 (a female) a more primitive morphology is present: although the foramen and condyles reside anteriorly on a short base, the nuchal lines are very high, the nuchal plane is very steep, and the base is as relatively narrow centrally. A.L. 822-1 illuminates fragmentary specimens in the 1970s Hadar collection that hint at aspects of this primitive suite, suggesting that it is a common pattern in the A. afarensis hypodigm. We explore the implications this website of these specimens for sexual dimorphism and evolutionary scenarios of functional integration in the hominin cranial base.”
“Background: Separating

males and females at the early adult stage did not ensure the virginity of females of Anopheles arabiensis (Dongola laboratory strain), whereas two years earlier this method had been successful. In most mosquito species, newly emerged males and females are not able to mate successfully. For anopheline species, a period of 24 h post-emergence is generally required for the completion of sexual maturation, which in males includes a 180 rotation of the genitalia. In this study, the possibility of an unusually shortened sexual maturity period in the laboratory-reared colony was investigated.

Methods: The effect of two different sex-separation methods on the virginity of females was tested: females Selleck Nutlin 3 separated as pupae or less than 16 h post-emergence were mated with males subjected to various doses of radiation. T-tests were performed to compare the two sex-separation methods. The rate of genitalia rotation was compared for laboratory-reared and wild males collected as pupae in Dongola, Sudan, and analysed by Z-tests. Spermatheca dissections were performed on females mated with laboratory-reared males to determine their insemination status.

Results: When the sex-separation was performed when adults were less than 16 h post-emergence, expected sterility was never reached for females mated with radio-sterilized males.

By combining peaks from ChIPSeq datasets, a supermarker was ident

By combining peaks from ChIPSeq datasets, a supermarker was identified that localized within 2 kB of 75% of MLV proviruses and detected differences GM6001 in integration preferences among different cell types. The supermarker predicted the likelihood of integration within specific chromosomal

regions in a cell-type specific manner, yielding probabilities for integration into protooncogene LMO2 identical to experimentally determined values. The supermarker thus identifies chromosomal features highly favored for retroviral integration, provides clues to the mechanism by which retrovirus integration sites are selected, and offers a tool for predicting cell-type specific proto-oncogene activation by retroviruses.”
“Glucose and cell swelling induce insulin secretion by alternative signaling pathways. Swelling-induced secretion is in most systems independent of calcium and various mediators of glucose stimulation. Comparison of two insulinoma tumor cell lines revealed surprising difference; INS-1E cells in contrast to INS-1 cells and isolated rat pancreatic islets do not respond to hypotonicity in the presence of calcium. To delineate the role of cholesterol the effect of its extraction or addition on the insulin secretion in response to glucose and cell swelling was compared. INS-1E cells have

significantly higher cholesterol content than INS-1 cells (58.5 +/- 2.9 and 46.3 +/- 2.5 mg chol/mg prot respectively). After cholesterol desorption by 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM of carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, or 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin the Apoptosis Compound Library response to hypotonicity in INS-1E cells emerged. On the contrary, supplementation of INS-1 cells with cholesterol inhibited their response to cell swelling. Cyclodextrin pretreatment inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion from INS-1 cells while INS-1E cells were more resistant to their effect.

Conclusion: Cellular cholesterol content substantially affects secretory process;

both high and low levels could be inhibitory. Absence of swelling-induced insulin secretion in INS-1E cells despite adequate response to glucose is related to their high cholesterol content. Optimal cholesterol concentration is different for either type of stimulation; swelling-induced mechanism is more sensitive to higher cholesterol content. The difference is likely to reflect involvement of sequential type exocytosis after cell swelling. Sensitivity of secretory processes suggests that either hypercholesterolemia or excessive effort to decrease plasma cholesterol in patients could have adverse effect on insulin secretion.”
“Objective: The DEFB103 gene encodes human beta-defensin 3, which has a high activity against Staphylococcus aureus. In the general population 20% are persistent nasal carriers of S. aureus, which is a problem for their general health.

“Products of crotonic condensation of ferrocenecarbaldehyd

“Products of crotonic condensation of ferrocenecarbaldehyde with allobetulone and betolonic acid methyl ester are described.”
“The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein

expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental HIF pathway molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of >95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 Compound Library screening structural integrity was maintained, including function

and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques.”
“The antinociceptive activity of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae) aqueous extract (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated against classical models of pain in mice, indicating promising results. It showed significant antinociceptive activity in writhing test (76.4% of inhibition) and also inhibited the neurogenic (61.8%) and inflammatory (46.6%) phases of the formalin model. When analysed against capsaicin-induced pain model, the aqueous extract was also effective with inhibition of 62.9%, but it did not cause significant activity against hot-plate model. The results suggest that the antinociception caused by aqueous extract Is related to the inhibition

of prostaglandins synthesis pathway cyclooxygenase and unrelated to the stimulation of the opioid receptors.”
“Intracranial invasion of cellular blue nevus is extremely rare, and its malignant 17DMAG transformation is even less common. The differential diagnosis includes neurocutaneous melanosis and neurocristic cutaneous hamartoma. A 50-year-old female presented with intracranial melanoma in contiguity with a congenital blue nevus on the scalp. The patient showed a wide pigmented lesion on the scalp that had grown in the last few years over the congenital blue nevus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intracranial tumor lying contiguous to the nevus. Despite aggressive surgery, the tumor relapsed and the patient developed systemic metastases.

Hall effect measurements indicate that the material has p-type co

Hall effect measurements indicate that the material has p-type conductivity with mid-10(15) carriers/cm(3) and hole mobilities in the 5-50 cm(2)/V.s range. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3611418]“
“Introduction: Fasciculoventricular pathways (FVPs) are rare causes

of preexcitation that do not mediate tachycardias. We report a two-center experience of pediatric patients with FVP and an Salubrinal research buy unexpectedly high association of complex congenital heart defects (CHDs), chromosomal anomalies, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Methods: A retrospective review of the electrophysiology database at two institutions was performed to identify patients with FVP from January 2000 to January 2011. Medical records of these patients were reviewed for clinical history and course, presence of comorbidities,

and details of intracardiac electrophysiology (EP) study.

Results: A total of 17 patients were identified. The primary indication for EP study was a preexcitation pattern on electrocardiogram. The majority of patients, 12/ 17 (71%), were found to have associated cardiac and genetic anomalies. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found in 5/ 17 (29%) patients, with genetic testing in two patients demonstrating the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 mutation (Danon syndrome). Underlying complex CHDs were present in 3/ 17 (18%) patients. One patient (6%) was status post (s/ p) cardiac 3-Methyladenine manufacturer transplant, one patient had hypertension, and another had Trisomy 21. Other electrophysiologic substrates mediating tachycardia were found in 3/ 17 (18%) patients. Only 5/ 17 patients (29%) Napabucasin cost were otherwise healthy with structurally normal hearts.


In this largest reported series of FVP in children, there is an unusually high association of FVP with complex CHDs, chromosomal anomalies, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Any patient with such disorders and manifest preexcitation should be evaluated with a high index of suspicion for a FVP. (PACE 2012; 35: 308-313)”
“After living cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, a variety of chemical modifications of DNA are induced either directly by ionization of DNA or indirectly through interactions with water-derived radicals. The DNA lesions include single strand breaks (SSB), base lesions, sugar damage, and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). Clustered DNA damage, which is defined as two or more of such lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA induced by a single radiation track, is considered to be a unique feature of ionizing radiation. A double strand break (DSB) is a type Of Clustered DNA damage, in which single strand breaks arc formed on opposite strands in close proximity. Fort-nation and repair of DSBs have been studied in great detail over the years as they have been linked to important biological endpoints, such as cell death, loss of genetic material, chromosome aberration.

Methods Using a case-control mother-baby dyads study, a total of

Methods. Using a case-control mother-baby dyads study, a total of 226 maternal/offspring pairs were selected at Anyang Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 2008 to December 2009. Maternal venous and cord bloods were obtained for DNA extraction. A polymerase chain reaction was performed on the genomic DNA samples to obtain the ACE gene VD polymorphism.

Results. In the present sample, there is no difference in maternal and

fetal ACE genotype or allele frequency between PIH patients and control group (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant association was found between the genotype incompatibility of fetal and maternal ACE gene and the risk of PIH (p > click here 0.05).

Conclusion. We did not find fetus ACE gene I/D polymorphism to be associated with the risk of PIH. Nor is there any evidence that the incompatibility of fetal and maternal ACE genotype is associated with PIH in the studied population.”
“Objective: To describe the evolving role of recombinant

human thyrotropin in the diagnostic evaluation of patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: A systematic buy HKI-272 review was performed of published English language articles appearing in PubMed using terms “”recombinant thyrotropin”" and “”thyroid cancer”". The author selected articles for inclusion based upon potential for clinical impact of the reported findings.

Results: The addition of recombinant human thyrotropin to diagnostic testing replaced the requirement for thyroid hormone withdrawal and symptomatic hypothyroidism that had been necessary to generate A-769662 sufficient endogenous thyrotropin for radioiodine scanning and thyroglobulin testing. The high negative predictive value of stimulated thyroglobulin testing removed the need for serial radioiodine scanning for many patients, but repeated stimulated

testing rarely appeared to add significantly. The development of highly sensitive second generation thyroglobulin assays may replace the need for stimulated testing in a subset of patients.

Conclusion: Recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated testing continues to be a valuable component of follow-up testing in the first year after initial treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. (Endocr Pract. 2013; 19: 157-161)”
“Impaired testicular thermoregulation is commonly implicated in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm function in animals and humans, with outcomes ranging from subclinical infertility to sterility. Bovine testes must be maintained 4-5 degrees C below body-core temperature for normal spermatogenesis. The effects of elevated testicular temperature have been extensively studied in cattle using a scrotal insulation model, which results in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm morphology and function. Using this model and proteomic approaches, we compared normal and abnormal sperm (from the same bulls) to elucidate the molecular basis of impaired function.

Early angiosperm fossil flowers show a similar orderly diversific

Early angiosperm fossil flowers show a similar orderly diversification and also provide detailed insights into the changing reproductive biology and phylogenetic diversity of angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous. In addition, newly discovered fossil flowers indicate considerable, previously unrecognized, cryptic diversity among the earliest angiosperms known from the fossil record. Lineages

that today have an herbaceous or shrubby habit selleck chemical were well represented. Monocotyledons, which have previously been difficult to recognize among assemblages of early fossil angiosperms, were also diverse and prominent in many Early Cretaceous ecosystems.”
“Antimony doped p-type ZnO films were grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The structural properties of Zn1-xSbxO (3% and 5%) thin films were investigated by Raman scattering studies. The softening of local lattice due to the formation of (Sb-Zn-2V(Zn)) acceptor complexes was detected as the shift in find more E-2(high) mode toward lower frequency side in ZnSbO thin films. Additional optical modes observed at 277, 333, 483, and 534 cm(-1) are due to the breaking of translational symmetry in w-ZnO by Sb doping. The Zn-Sb related local vibrational mode was detected around 237

cm(-1) in 5% Sb doped ZnO thin film. Room temperature Hall measurements exhibited low resistivity of 0.017 Omega cm, high hole concentration of click here 6.25 x 10(18) cm(-3), and mobility of 57.44 cm(2)/V s in the 5% Sb-doped ZnO thin film. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516493]“
“Flowering plants represent the most significant branch in the tree of land plants, with respect to the number of extant species, their impact on the shaping of modern ecosystems and their economic importance. However,

unlike so many persistent phylogenetic problems that have yielded to insights from DNA sequence data, the mystery surrounding the origin of angiosperms has deepened with the advent and advance of molecular systematics. Strong statistical support for competing hypotheses and recent novel trees from molecular data suggest that the accuracy of current molecular trees requires further testing. Analyses of phytochrome amino acids using a duplicate gene-rooting approach yield trees that unite cycads and angiosperms in a clade that is sister to a clade in which Gingko and Cupressophyta are successive sister taxa to gnetophytes plus Pinaceae. Application of a cycads + angiosperms backbone constraint in analyses of a morphological dataset yields better resolved trees than do analyses in which extant gymnosperms are forced to be monophyletic. The results have implications both for our assessment of uncertainty in trees from sequence data and for our use of molecular constraints as a way to integrate insights from morphological and molecular evidence.