31 10log.Vaccines adjuvanted with 30 μg GPI-0100 induced IgG titers in all vaccinated animals and these were significantly higher than CHIR-99021 ic50 in the mice receiving unadjuvanted vaccines (p < 0.005 for all tested antigen doses.) Notably, IgG titers achieved with adjuvanted low dose antigen (0.04 μg) were about 1 log higher than those
achieved with non-adjuvanted high-dose antigen (1 μg). The GPI-0100 adjuvant significantly enhanced IgG1 titers at the low antigen doses (0.04 and 0.2 μg HA) and IgG2a titers at all tested antigen doses, respectively (Table 1, p < 0.0001 (0.04 μg HA) and <0.0005 (0.2 μg HA) for IgG1 and <0.005 for IgG2a (all HA doses)). Notably, mice receiving low antigen doses (0.04 and 0.2 μg HA) developed detectable IgG2a titers only in the presence of the GPI-0100 adjuvant. The adjuvant effects were especially pronounced selleck products for low antigen doses. To evaluate adjuvant activity of GPI-0100 on cellular immune responses elicited by A/PR/8 subunit vaccine, ELISPOT assays were performed to detect influenza-specific cytokine-producing T cells from the immunized and challenged mice (Fig. 3B).
No influenza-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells were found in control animals injected with buffer and challenged with virus three days before sacrifice (data not shown). Unadjuvanted 0.04 and 0.2 μg HA barely induced detectable influenza-specific IFN-γ responses. At a dose of 1 μg, HA alone induced an average of 4 IFN-γ-producing cells per 5 × 105 splenocytes in 3 out of 6 mice. GPI-0100 enhanced the IFN-γ responses at all tested antigen doses. However, due to the large variation in the number of IFN-γ-producing T cells within the experimental groups, significance of the differences between unadjuvanted and adjuvanted vaccines was achieved only for the animals that received 0.2 μg HA (p < 0.05). Low numbers of influenza-specific IL-4-producing T cells were found three days after infection of control animals (data not shown). Similar low numbers were observed
in mice immunized with 0.04 μg unadjuvanted vaccines, but numbers increased in an antigen dose-dependent manner ( Fig. 3C). GPI-0100 induced an increase in the number of IL-4-producing cells at all next tested antigen doses, yet the difference was significant only for the lowest antigen dose (p < 0.05). Thus, the GPI-0100 adjuvant enhanced the number of influenza-specific cytokine-producing cells to a similar level at all antigen doses tested. The effect of GPI-0100 on IFN-γ responses was stronger than that on IL-4 responses. The phenotype of the cellular immune responses was further analyzed by calculating IFN-γ/IL-4 ratios per individual mouse (Table 2). GPI-0100 adjuvantation did not change the Th2 dominance of the response to PR8 subunit vaccines, but significantly enhanced Th1 responses leading to a more balanced immune phenotype.