5 End-stage liver disease and its complications 351 Recommendat

5 End-stage liver disease and its complications 3.5.1 Recommendations 3.6 The role of clinical networks 4.0 Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus 4.1 Background 4.1.1 Prevalence 4.1.2 Natural history 4.1.2.1 The influence of HBV on HIV infection 4.1.2.2 The influence of HIV on HBV infection 4.1.2.3 Chronic hepatitis B: classification 4.2 Assessment and investigations 4.2.1 Diagnosis of HBV infection in HIV-infected individuals 4.2.2 Molecular and serological tests in HBV

infection 4.2.2.1 The use of serum HBV DNA 4.2.2.2 Measuring HBV serology during and after therapy 4.2.2.3 HBV resistance testing 4.2.2.4 selleck chemical HBV genotyping 4.2.3 Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (see 3.5 General section) 4.3 Therapy 4.3.1 Who to treat? 4.3.1.1 Recommendations 4.3.2 What to treat with? 4.3.2.1 HIV therapy not indicated 4.3.2.2 HIV therapy indicated 4.3.2.3 Recommendations for patients with a CD4 ≥500 cells/μL 4.3.2.4 Recommendations for patients with

a CD4 <500 cells/μL 4.3.2.5 Goals of therapy 4.3.2.6 Clevudine (L-FMAU) 4.4 Acute hepatitis B 4.4.1 Recommendations 4.5 Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) 4.5.1 Recommendations 5.0 Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus 5.1 Background 5.1.1 Prevalence 5.1.2 Natural history 5.1.2.1 The influence of HCV on HIV infection 5.1.2.2 The influence of HIV on HCV infection 5.2 Assessment and investigations 5.2.1 Diagnosis of HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals 5.3 Therapy Y-27632 chemical structure 5.3.1 The coadministration of anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatment agents 5.3.2 Recommendations 5.3.3 General principles of anti-HCV therapy 5.3.4 Treatment options 5.3.4.1 Peginterferon 5.3.4.2 Ribavirin 5.3.4.3 Monitoring

5.3.4.4 Treatment duration 5.3.4.5 filipin ‘Easier-to-treat’ genotypes 5.3.4.6 ‘Harder-to-treat’ genotypes 5.3.4.7 Recommendations 5.3.5 Nonresponders and relapsers 5.3.6 New therapies for hepatitis C 5.4 Acute hepatitis C 5.4.1 Epidemiology 5.4.2 Clinical picture and natural history 5.4.3 Diagnosis of acute HCV infection 5.4.4 Management 5.4.5 Recommendations I =randomized controlled trial (RCT) or meta-analysis of several RCTs II =other good quality trial evidence III =observational studies/case reports IV =expert opinion 1 All new HIV-positive patients should be screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers. The 2010 guidelines have been updated to incorporate all new relevant information that has become available since the previous versions were published in 2005. The 2005 versions came as separate hepatitis B and C guidelines but for 2010 we have decided to amalgamate them into a single document. This is to avoid duplication, as the general management of chronic liver disease is similar for both infections. The guidelines follow the methodology outlined below and all the peer-reviewed publications and important, potentially treatment-changing abstracts from the last 4 years have been reviewed.

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