5 End-stage liver disease and its complications 3.5.1 Recommendations 3.6 The role of clinical networks 4.0 Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus 4.1 Background 4.1.1 Prevalence 4.1.2 Natural history 184.108.40.206 The influence of HBV on HIV infection 220.127.116.11 The influence of HIV on HBV infection 18.104.22.168 Chronic hepatitis B: classification 4.2 Assessment and investigations 4.2.1 Diagnosis of HBV infection in HIV-infected individuals 4.2.2 Molecular and serological tests in HBV
infection 22.214.171.124 The use of serum HBV DNA 126.96.36.199 Measuring HBV serology during and after therapy 188.8.131.52 HBV resistance testing 184.108.40.206 selleck chemical HBV genotyping 4.2.3 Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (see 3.5 General section) 4.3 Therapy 4.3.1 Who to treat? 220.127.116.11 Recommendations 4.3.2 What to treat with? 18.104.22.168 HIV therapy not indicated 22.214.171.124 HIV therapy indicated 126.96.36.199 Recommendations for patients with a CD4 ≥500 cells/μL 188.8.131.52 Recommendations for patients with
a CD4 <500 cells/μL 184.108.40.206 Goals of therapy 220.127.116.11 Clevudine (L-FMAU) 4.4 Acute hepatitis B 4.4.1 Recommendations 4.5 Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) 4.5.1 Recommendations 5.0 Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus 5.1 Background 5.1.1 Prevalence 5.1.2 Natural history 18.104.22.168 The influence of HCV on HIV infection 22.214.171.124 The influence of HIV on HCV infection 5.2 Assessment and investigations 5.2.1 Diagnosis of HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals 5.3 Therapy Y-27632 chemical structure 5.3.1 The coadministration of anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatment agents 5.3.2 Recommendations 5.3.3 General principles of anti-HCV therapy 5.3.4 Treatment options 126.96.36.199 Peginterferon 188.8.131.52 Ribavirin 184.108.40.206 Monitoring
220.127.116.11 Treatment duration 18.104.22.168 filipin ‘Easier-to-treat’ genotypes 22.214.171.124 ‘Harder-to-treat’ genotypes 126.96.36.199 Recommendations 5.3.5 Nonresponders and relapsers 5.3.6 New therapies for hepatitis C 5.4 Acute hepatitis C 5.4.1 Epidemiology 5.4.2 Clinical picture and natural history 5.4.3 Diagnosis of acute HCV infection 5.4.4 Management 5.4.5 Recommendations I =randomized controlled trial (RCT) or meta-analysis of several RCTs II =other good quality trial evidence III =observational studies/case reports IV =expert opinion 1 All new HIV-positive patients should be screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers. The 2010 guidelines have been updated to incorporate all new relevant information that has become available since the previous versions were published in 2005. The 2005 versions came as separate hepatitis B and C guidelines but for 2010 we have decided to amalgamate them into a single document. This is to avoid duplication, as the general management of chronic liver disease is similar for both infections. The guidelines follow the methodology outlined below and all the peer-reviewed publications and important, potentially treatment-changing abstracts from the last 4 years have been reviewed.