9 and 7 0 pg mL−1, respectively Secretions of IFN-γ and IL-10 in

9 and 7.0 pg mL−1, respectively. Secretions of IFN-γ and IL-10 in response to a given antigen were considered positive when absolute concentrations were ≥100 and ≥29 pg mL−1, respectively, and E/C was ≥2 (Brock et al., 2004; Moura et al., 2004; Al-Attiyah & Mustafa, 2008). A positive response for both cytokines was considered strong

at ≥60%, moderate at 40% to <60% and weak at <40% (Mustafa, 2009a, b). The ratios of IFN-γ : IL-10 were calculated to determine Th1 vs. anti-inflammatory biases in response to Con A, complex mycobacterial antigens and peptides of RD1 and RD15. The ratios of ≥2 were considered to be Th1, <0.5 to be anti-inflammatory and 0.5 to <2 to be neither Th1 nor anti-inflammatory. Moreover, Th1 responses were considered strong, moderate and weak with IFN-γ : IL-10 ratios of >20, 5–20 and 2 to <5, respectively. The antigen-induced cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion results CH5424802 with Con A, complex

mycobacterial antigens and peptide pools were statistically analyzed for significant differences between TB patients and healthy subjects using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test for two independent samples. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. In lymphocyte proliferation assays, Con A and the complex mycobacterial antigens were strong stimulators of PBMC from TB patients and healthy subjects, as indicated by high percentages of positive responders (83–100%) (Fig. 1a and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ulixertinib-bvd-523-vrt752271.html b). Furthermore, the proliferation of PBMC

from TB patients was strong in response to RD1 peptide pool (70% positive responders) and weak in response to peptide pools of RD15 and all of its ORFs (<40% positive responders) (Fig. 1c). In healthy subjects, the RD1 peptide pool induced moderate responses (47% positive responders), whereas the peptide pool of RD15 and 1502 induced strong responses (70% and 63% positive responders, respectively), and RD1501, RD1504 and RD1505 induce moderate responses (40%, 43% and 43% positive responders, respectively) (Fig. 1d). Peptide pools of other ORFs of RD15 induced weak proliferation of PBMC (<40% positive responders) (Fig. 1d). Statistical analysis of the results showed that positive responses induced by RD15 and RD1502 were significantly higher (P<0.05) in healthy MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit subjects than in TB patients (Fig. 1c and d). To further determine the secretion of Th1 and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their ratios in response to complex mycobacterial antigens and peptides of RD1 and RD15, we studied secretion of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 with PBMC from 20 TB patients and 12 healthy subjects using FlowCytomix assays. The results showed that PBMC from both TB patients and healthy subjects secreted high concentrations of IFN-γ (median values=6727–10 986 pg mL−1) with strong responses to complex mycobacterial antigens (positive responders =92–100%) (Fig. 2a and b).

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