After surgery, duodenal switch patients had lower mean vitamin A

After surgery, duodenal switch patients had lower mean vitamin A and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and a steeper decline in thiamine concentrations than did the gastric bypass patients. Other vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and vitamin E adjusted for serum lipids) did not change differently in the surgical groups, and concentrations

were either stable or increased. Furthermore, duodenal switch patients had lower hemoglobin and total cholesterol concentrations and a lower BMI (mean reduction: 41% compared with 30%) than did gastric bypass patients 1 y after surgery. Additional dietary supplement use was more frequent among duodenal switch patients (55%) than among gastric bypass patients (26%).

Conclusions: Compared with gastric bypass, duodenal switch may be associated with a greater risk of vitamin A and D deficiencies in the first year after surgery and of thiamine deficiency in the initial Selleckchem AZD8055 months after surgery. Patients who undergo these 2 surgical interventions may require different monitoring and supplementation regimens in the first year after surgery. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00327912. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:15-22.”
“The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of quinolone and beta-lactam resistance in an

isolate of Citrobacter freundii PC2/08 collected from sewage effluent GDC-0994 price from L’Aquila, Italy. qnrB-9 and bla(TEM-116) JPH203 chemical structure were co-expressed in a large plasmid identified in C. freundi PC2/08 strain. Compared to TEM-1, TEM-116 showed two single mutations: V84I and A184V. The pIPC2/08 plasmid conferred resistance to several beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Tazobactam could be considered a good inhibitor whereas clavulanic acid was unable to restore susceptibility to amoxicillin. The QnrB-9 element seems to confer the same level of resistance to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin with minimum inhibitory

concentration (MIC) values of 4 mg/L for either. In this study, we confirm the common association of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ES beta L) production. This is the first finding in Italy of qnrB9 and TEM-116 in a non-clinical or animal strain.”
“Null hypothesis significance testing has successfully reduced the complexity of scientific inference to a dichotomous decision (i.e., ‘reject’ versus ‘not reject’). As a consequence, p values and their associated statistical significance play an important role in the social and medical sciences. But do we truly understand what statistical significance testing and p values entail? Judging by the vast literature on controversies regarding their application and interpretation, this seems questionable. It has even been argued that significance testing should be abandoned all together [2].

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