Among the dermatophytes, the most common pathogen isolated was Tr

Among the dermatophytes, the most common pathogen isolated was Trichophyton rubrum (59.4%), followed in descending order by: Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (16.6%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes

var. mentagrophytes (9.0%), Trichophyton tonsurans (6.8%), Microsporum canis (5.1%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (2.7%). Among the yeast-like fungi, a marked predominance Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor of Candida species was observed (86.3%). Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was the most commonly isolated mould (25.2%). The most frequently affected body sites were the toenails (53.9%), followed by the fingernails (19.0%). In children under 15 years of age, glabrous skin was the most commonly affected body site with M. canis as the most frequent causative agent. “
“The aim of this study was to examine the antifungal activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin and posaconazole on Candida albicans biofilms in the intermediate and mature development phases. Candida albicans biofilms, previously grown for either 24, 48 or

72 h in 96-well microtitre plates, were treated for 48 h with amphotericin B, caspofungin or posaconazole in increasing concentrations according to the respective minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for planktonic cells (1–128 × MIC). The biofilms were quantified using the mean optical density (OD) determined by XTT assay. Antifungal activities were expressed as percentage of reduction in OD of drug-treated many biofilms compared to untreated biofilms.

To test the fungicidal activity of antifungal agents, the unfixed biofilms were scraped off and seeded to Sabouraud agar. Caspofungin and amphotericin B showed higher activity against C. albicans biofilm grown for 24 h and 72 h (≥50% reduction of OD) than biofilms grown for 48 h, whereas posaconazole showed similar, but reduced activity against all phases of C. albicans biofilm (≤50% reduction of OD). Caspofungin at 1–4 × MIC achieved the greatest decrease in the biofilm OD grown for 24, 48 and 72 h, whereas amphotericin B showed dose-dependent activity. However, all tested antifungals failed to reach fungicidal activity in all biofilm development phases. Invasive Candida infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients.1 Surgery, long-term admission at intensive care units, broad-spectrum antibiotics and percutaneous intravascular catheters are predisposing factors for the development of invasive Candida infections.2 Colonisation is common and considered a risk factor for invasive Candida infection.3 On the skin, mucosa and inert surfaces of intravascular catheters Candida cells attach, proliferate and may finally form a biofilm of hyphae and densely packed cells embedded within an inert matrix.4,5 Established biofilms are difficult to eliminate and are a source of persistent infections and recurrent fungaemia.

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