Based on a previous report in which the density of the epicuticul

Based on a previous report in which the density of the epicuticular wrinkle was incorrectly described as the

cuticle density, the densities of Yunpoong and Chunpoong were 53.0% and 17.9% respectively [20]. This finding corroborates that the density of epicuticular wrinkle is more effective against leaf Panobinostat burning, compared to the thickness of the cuticle. Because of its characteristic morphology, epicuticular wax or the epicuticular wrinkle of epidermal surfaces can be useful as a taxonomic key of plant classification in the near future. They are also significant for researchers who have been studying the cuticle for the relationship between plants and external environmental stressors. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. This work was supported by a grant from Konkuk University (Seoul, Korea) in 2011. The authors gratefully acknowledge KT&G Central Institute for providing the ginseng leaves. We also thank Korea Basic Science Institute (Chuncheon, Korea) for technical assistance with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. “
“Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary, Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung. Onalespib supplier Ginseng has a sweet taste, is able to keep the body warm, and has protective effects on the five viscera (i.e., heart, lung, liver, kidney, and spleen) [1]. Ginseng can be

classified by how it is processed. Red ginseng (RG; Ginseng Radix Rubra) refers to ginseng that has been steamed

once. White ginseng (Ginseng Radix Alba) refers to dried ginseng. Black ginseng (BG; Ginseng Radix Nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. The fine roots (hairy roots or fibrous roots) of fresh ginseng that has been steamed nine times are called Fine Black ginseng (FBG). There are more than 30 different ginseng saponins with various physiological and pharmacological activities [2] and [3]. Ginsenosides are divided into two groups: protopanaxadiols and protopanaxatriols. The root of Panax ginseng reportedly has various biological effects, including anticarcinogenic effects. One study showed that ginseng extracts induce apoptosis and decrease Ixazomib mouse telomerase activity and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human leukemia cells [4]. In addition, ginseng extracts suppress 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting cell proliferation [5]. Until recently, research on anticancer effects of ginseng has focused on ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) and ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2). Ginsenoside Rg3 is not present in raw ginseng or White ginseng, but is synthesized during heating hydrolysis; thus, only a small amount of Rg3 is present in Red ginseng. Ginsenoside Rg3 has an anticancer effect by suppressing phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression and decreasing activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) [6].

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