BCG has been used experimentally for vaccination of cattle against BTB since 1912, including in the UK in the
first half of the 20th century  and . As in humans, BCG confers partial protection against BTB in cattle  and therefore, there is a need for better vaccines. It is possible to carry out vaccination and challenge experiments in cattle to determine whether a given vaccine or vaccination regimen confers protection against BTB. However, these experiments require the use of large animal biosafety level 3 (BSL3) facilities which are expensive to maintain and are often oversubscribed. Ideally, cheaper and faster gating criteria should be available to support the decision making process of whether a vaccine should be tested in cattle for protective efficacy in such vaccination and challenge experiments. This would considerably accelerate vaccine development. Although BCG is attenuated, selleck chemicals it is a live bacterium which replicates and survives in the host  and is normally handled in BSL2 facilities. If a vaccine is to be successful in conferring protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis, it should induce immune responses capable of controlling/killing mycobacteria and it is reasonable to propose that this could initially be demonstrated
by an ability to induce a reduction Dolutegravir nmr in the number of BCG cfu. Recently, a human BCG challenge model for the testing of TB click here vaccine candidates has been described  and . We proposed that such a BCG challenge model in cattle, once developed, could serve as a gating
criterion for this target species to screen vaccines before they are tested in expensive and facility-intense M. bovis challenge experiments. This paper describes the development of a cattle BCG challenge model. Experimentation was carried out according to the UK Animal (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. The study protocol was approved by the AHVLA Animal Use Ethics Committee (UK Home Office PCD number 70/6905). Holstein-Friesian cattle of 4–6 months of age were sourced from farms known to be free of BTB. The vaccine strain M. bovis BCG Danish 1331 was prepared as per manufacturer’s instructions (SSI, Denmark). BCG Danish 1331 is currently the only BCG strain commercially available for vaccination. The BCG challenge strain was BCG Tokyo (a kind gift from Dr. M Behr, McGill University, Canada), which was grown to mid log phase in 7H9 medium containing 0.05% Tween 80 (Sigma-Aldrich, Poole, United Kingdom) and ADC and stored frozen at −70 °C until further use. BCG Tokyo differs from BCG Danish 1331 at the RD2 and this difference would permit the distinction between the two strains in vaccination and challenge experiments. An aliquot was thawed and serial dilutions plated on 7H11 agar medium to determine bacterial titer. Frozen BCG Tokyo titer was determined to be at 1 × 107 cfu/ml.