Collectively, these results indicate that MFG-E8 in a dose-dependent manner coordinates the expression of cell cycle molecules and facilitates VSMC proliferation via integrin/ERK1/2 signaling. Thus, an increase in MFG-E8 signaling is a mechanism of the age-associated increase in aortic VSMC proliferation.”
“A dual navigator-gated, flow-sensitive alternating
inversion recovery (FAIR) true fast imaging selleck kinase inhibitor with steady precession (True-FISP) sequence has been developed for accurate quantification of renal perfusion. FAIR methods typically overestimate renal perfusion when respiratory motion causes the inversion slice to move away from the imaging slice, which then incorporates unlabeled VS-4718 price spins from static tissue. To overcome this issue, the dual navigator scheme was introduced to track inversion and imaging slices, and thus to ensure the same position for both slices. Accuracy was further improved by a well-defined bolus
length, which was achieved by a modification version of Q2TIPS (quantitative imaging of perfusion using a single subtraction, second version with interleaved thin-slice TI(1) periodic saturation): a series of saturation pulses was applied to both sides of the imaging slice at a certain time after the inversion. The dual navigator-gated technique was tested in eight volunteers. The measured renal cortex perfusion rates were between 191 and 378 mL/100 g/min in the renal cortex with a mean of 376 mL/100 g/min. The proposed technique may prove most beneficial for noncontrast-based renal perfusion quantification in young children and patients who may have difficulty holding their breath for prolonged periods or are sedated/anesthetized. Magn Reson Med 64:1352-1359, 2010. (C)2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Legumes are the third-largest family of angiosperms, the second-most- important crop family, and a key source of biological nitrogen in agriculture. Recently, the genome sequences of Glycine max (soybean), Medicago truncatula, and Lotus japonicus were substantially completed. Comparisons among legume genomes reveal a key role for duplication, especially a whole-genome duplication event approximately
58 Mya that is shared by most agriculturally important SYN-117 supplier legumes. A second and more recent genome duplication occurred only in the lineage leading to soybean. Outcomes of genome duplication, including gene fractionation and sub- and neofunctionalization, have played key roles in shaping legume genomes and in the evolution of legume-specific traits. Analysis of legume genome sequences also enables the discovery of legume-specific gene families and provides a framework for genome-wide association mapping that will target phenotypes of special importance in legumes. Translating genomic resources from sequenced species to less studied but still important “orphan” legumes will enhance prospects for world food production.