Devoogdt used manual lymphatic drainage, one of the cornerstones

Devoogdt used manual lymphatic drainage, one of the cornerstones of treatment for established lymphoedema, in this study (Földi 2003). Combined with exercise and education the aim was to prevent lymphoedema. Intuitively every lymphoedema

therapist would agree that this would be worthy of pursuit. However, this study does not show any benefit from the addition of manual lymphatic drainage. The incidence of lymphoedema within the first year is nearly equal in both groups. This is in stark contrast to Torres Lacomba’s study (2010), also a randomised, single blinded clinical trial, including 120 women. Their intervention was manual lymphatic drainage, exercise, and education, compared find more to education alone. The results showed that after one year the incidence of lymphoedema in the intervention group was 7% compared to 25% in the control group. Comparing the two studies the question arises whether exercise had a major impact and accounted for the better results in Torres Lacomba’s study. Exercise

has been shown to be beneficial in early post-operative physiotherapy programs (Box 2002). In both of these studies similar exercise programs were used, but Devoogdt’s incidence of lymphoedema was high in both the intervention and control group. The interventions were delayed in Devoogdt’s study (4–5 weeks after surgery) while the Torres Lacomba intervention Selleckchem AZD6738 started 3–5 days after discharge from hospital, which might also have had some impact on outcome. How click here many manual lymphatic drainage sessions are required to reduce the incidence of lymphoedema if at all? Devoogdt used 40 sessions compared to 9 in the Torres Lacomba study. Further research is required to answer the questions and to determine the benefit of adding manual lymphatic drainage to early postoperative physiotherapy interventions. “
“The GHQ-28 was developed by Goldberg in 1978 (Goldberg 1978) and has since been translated into 38 languages. Developed as a screening tool to detect those likely to have or to be at risk of developing psychiatric disorders, the GHQ-28 is a 28-item

measure of emotional distress in medical settings. Through factor analysis, the GHQ-28 has been divided into four subscales. These are: somatic symptoms (items 1–7); anxiety/insomnia (items 8–14); social dysfunction (items 15–21), and severe depression (items 22–28) (Goldberg 1978). It takes less than 5 minutes to complete. The GHQ-28 must be purchased and is available at the following website: Instructions to client and scoring: Examples of some of the items in use include ‘Have you found everything getting on top of you?’, ‘Have you been getting scared or panicy for no good reason?’, and ‘Have you been getting edgy and bad tempered?’ Each item is accompanied by four possible responses: Not at all, No more than usual, Rather more than usual, and Much more than usual.

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