However, postoperative heart failure occurs in patients with norm

However, postoperative heart failure occurs in patients with normal preoperative LVEF. Therefore, we examined

clinical and echocardiographic data of patients with rheumatic heart disease to determine additional risk factors for low LVEF in the postoperative period.

Methods and Results: Ninety-seven patients Selleckchem SRT2104 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) who underwent mitral valve replacement for severe mitral valve stenosis were included retrospectively in this study. All patients had normal LVEF before surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative LVEF 6 months after surgery. Groups A had normal postoperative LVEF (82 cases, 84.5%), and group B had low postoperative LVEF (15 cases, 15.5%). Clinical and electrocardiographic data were collected to determine risk factors for deterioration in cardiac function.

Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative low systolic peak velocities at the lateral tricuspid annulus (St) and no or mild aortic stenosis were independent risk factors for cardiac deterioration YH25448 nmr in patients with normal preoperative LVEF. Individuals

with preoperative St <= 4.8 cm/s were more likely to develop lower LVEF at follow-up (chi(2) = 7.54; P = .006; odds ratio 5.03, 95% confidence interval 1.31-20.82). All 15 patients who had normal preoperative LVEF but abnormal postoperative LVEF had no or only mild aortic valve stenosis.

Conclusions: Decreased right ventricular FK228 function and no or mild aortic stenosis were independent risk factors for low LVEF at follow-up in patients with RHD who had normal preoperative LVEF. The velocity of the tricuspid valve ring should be included in preoperative evaluations to improve the accuracy of post-surgical prognosis and clinical decision making.”
“BACKGROUND: Inhibition of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a chemokine receptor expressed on activated T cells, is efficacious in modulating inflammation and immunity as well as in patients

with human immunodeficiency virus infection. This study examined the effect and mechanism of CCR5 blockade in combination with cyclosporine in prolonging cardiac allograft survival in mice.

METHODS: Hearts from BALB/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/10 recipients. They were administrated with anti-CCR5 antibody (Ab) or control Ab and cyclosporine or phosphate-buffered (PBS) saline, respectively. To investigate the role of regulatory cells, naive mice (secondary recipients) underwent adoptive transfer of splenocytes from anti-CCR5 Ab plus cyclosporine-treated recipients and cardiac allograft transplantation.

RESULTS: Compared with recipients treated with control Ab plus PBS, allografts treated with anti-CCR5 Ab and cyclosporine showed significantly prolonged survival (p < 0.001), markedly decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (p < 0.005), and increased frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (23.98% +/- 1.55% vs 6.30% +/- 0.57%, p < 0.005).

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