In global post-licensure surveillance of spontaneous reports of i

In global post-licensure surveillance of spontaneous reports of intussusception related to RV1 from December 2004 to July 2010, reported cases increased in the first week after vaccination with dose 1 but not after dose 2. In an analysis of observed versus expected cases by region,

the observed number of intussusception cases within 30 days following dose 1 were within the range of the expected number of cases for all regions except Europe. In Europe, there was an excess number of observed selleck chemicals llc intussusception cases compared to expected (29 observed cases versus a range of 3.3–11.2 expected cases) within 7 days following dose 1 [39]. A post-licensure study of RV1 that used both the self-controlled

case-series and the case–control methods was conducted in Mexico and Brazil [6]. Infants with intussusception were identified through active hospital-based surveillance. A total this website of 615 case-patients and 2050 age-matched neighborhood controls were enrolled. A short-term increased risk of intussusception 1–7 days after the first dose was identified in Mexico by both case-series and case–control methods, equating to 1 additional case for every 52,000 vaccinated infants [40]. No risk was found after the first dose in Brazil, but a smaller attributable risk of 1 in 76,000 infants was found 1–7 days after the second dose [40]. A combined annual excess of ∼100 intussusception cases in Mexico and in Brazil were attributable to RV1. In comparison, RV1 prevented ∼80,000 hospitalizations

and 1300 deaths from diarrhea each year in these two countries combined [40]. A manufacturer-sponsored post-marketing study of RV1 and intussusception in Mexico reported similar findings [41]. In a post-licensure study of RV5 in the United States, no risk of intussusception was found based on data for over 800,000 total doses of RV5, including more than 300,000 first vaccine doses, administered in the Vaccine Safety Unoprostone Datalink (VSD), which uses medical claims data from children enrolled in health maintenance organizations [8]. However, even with this number of doses, the VSD cannot rule out a risk of intussusception with RV5 as low as the risk that is currently reported with RV1 in Mexico. A manufacturer-sponsored study using a large claims database examined the association of RV5 and intussusceptions reported similar findings with similar limitations of being unable to detect a lower level risk [42]. Smaller post-marketing studies were also conducted in Australia where both RV1 and RV5 are used.

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