In order to estimate the prevalence of doping and illicit drug ab

In order to estimate the prevalence of doping and illicit drug abuse, the athletes were either

R788 issued an anonymous standardized questionnaire (SQ; n = 1394) or were interviewed using randomized response technique (RRT; n=480). We used a two-sided z-test to compare the SQ and RRT results with the respective official German NADA data on the prevalence of doping.

Results: Official doping tests only reveal 0.81% (n = 25,437; 95% CI: 0.70-0.92%) of positive test results, while according to RRT 6.8% (n = 480; 95% CI: 2.7-10.9%) of our athletes confessed to having practiced doping (z= 2.91, p = 0.004). SQ and RRT both revealed a prevalence of about 7% for illicit drug use, but SQ failed to indicate GS-9973 cell line a realistic prevalence of doping (0.20%; 95% CI: 0.02-0.74%).

Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that data from official doping tests underestimate the true prevalence of doping in elite sports by more than a factor of eight. Our results indicate that implementing RRT before and after anti-doping measures could be a promising method for evaluating the effectiveness

of anti-doping programs. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mature spermatozoa contain thousands of mRNA transcripts. These untranslated mRNA may perhaps serve as a “”footprint”" of spermatogenesis since many of them might directly or indirectly be involved in fertilization, early embryo cleavage, poor semen quality and fertility. In this study, we tried to isolate high-quality RNA from mature spermatozoa and to monitor the expression profile of protamine 1 (PRM1) and protamine 2 (PRM2) gene in ejaculated spermatozoa of normal selleck (good, % initial progressive motility: 57.61 +/- 1.41, n = 9) and motility impaired (poor, % initial progressive motility: 18.45 +/- 1.61, n = 8) crossbred Frieswal (HF x Sahiwal) bulls semen using real time quantitative PCR. Semen samples were subjected to discontinuous (45:90) Percoll gradient centrifugation, specifically to eliminate damaged spermatozoa and contaminating somatic cells. Total RNA was extracted

from sperm pellets and cDNA was synthesized. Furthermore, the absence of contamination of germ cells, epithelial cells and leucocytes in all the RNA extractions was tested by RT-PCR targeting specific molecular markers like KIT, CDH1 and CD4, respectively. The presence of transcripts like PRM1, PRM2, DAZL, and PPIA were demonstrated in ejaculated spermatozoa using appropriate PCR primers without RNA amplification. Expression of PRM1 and PRM2 genes were evaluated by real time quantitative PCR using TaqMan chemistry, where PPIA was used as internal control. The cDNA synthesized from normal buffalo testicular tissue was served as positive control. The good quality semen producing group showed significantly higher level of PRM1 mRNAs expression as compared to the poor quality semen producers (P < 0.

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