Inhibition of Gsk3β protected livers against IRI by down-regulati

Inhibition of Gsk3β protected livers against IRI by down-regulating pro-inflammatory IL-12 and selectively sparing immune regulatory IL-10, resulting in broader suppression of pro-inflammatory gene programs, including TNF-α and CXCL10. Interestingly, IL-10 neutralization recreated liver IRI, stressing the importance of IL-10 immune regulatory mechanism in cytoprotection rendered by Gsk3 inhibition. Targeting Gsk3 has been proven an effective cardioprotective strategy.16 Unlike pre-conditioning, which triggers Gsk3β phosphorylation, reperfusion with Gsk3 inhibitors, added prior to or even post-ischemia, reduced cell death.17,

18 However, it was also shown that Gsk3 inactivation was not absolutely required for ischemia pre- and post-conditioning.28 Despite controversial in vivo data, the mechanistic basis of these studies Navitoclax was the finding that inhibition of Gsk3β in cardiomyocytes Selleckchem LDK378 delayed the opening of MPTP in the inner membrane, which protects cells from the intrinsic cell death pathway. The MPTP-triggered cell death was closely associated with IRI development.15 Along the same lines of cytoprotection, Gsk3 inhibition was also shown to protect kidneys and brains from IRI pathology,29-31 as well as livers from drug-induced

toxicity.32 Our in vitro hepatocyte culture data are consistent with the positive regulatory role of Gsk3 in stress-induced cell death pathway (data not shown). The liver protective effect of Gsk3 inhibition in vivo does not depend on its suppression of MPTP, as atractyloside, an MPTP opener, did not abolish the effect of SB216763 in our liver IR model. Furthermore, Gsk3 inhibition by SB216763 did not sensitize hepatocytes to TNF-α-induced cell death in vitro (data not shown). Our results show that the immune regulatory function of Gsk3 inhibition is critical for its beneficial enough effects in vivo, as IL-10 neutralization not only

restored liver pro-inflammatory phenotype, but also dictated the severity of hepatocellular damage. In vivo, SB216763-facilitated Gsk3 inhibition protects mice from endotoxin shock,12 in association with the suppression of pro-inflammatory IL-12, IL-6, IFN-γ and the increase of immune regulatory IL-10. Our study provides further evidence that the suppression of the pro-inflammatory program by Gsk3 inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo was mediated, at least partially, by an IL-10 autocrine mechanism. In macrophage cultures, Gsk3 inhibition selectively suppressed, as early as at 1 hour, LPS-induced IL-12p40 and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, IL-6. A broader suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurred only late (6 hours) and was IL-10-dependent. Importantly, an IL-10-dependent autocrine mechanism was involved in the regulation of CXCL10 by Gsk3 inhibition in response to TLR4 stimulation.

Comments are closed.