“Japanese breast milk samples were tested for antibodies t


“Japanese breast milk samples were tested for antibodies to human Liproxstatin-1 research buy T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) by particle agglutination (PA) and a line immunoassay (LIA). In the PA method, the agglutination reaction between the HTLV-1 antibody and sensitized particles occurred at a 1:128

dilution of some breast milk samples. The average antibody titer was one order of magnitude lower than that in the serum positive control. A total of 243 human breast milk specimens were assayed by PA, of which 21 samples from Okinawa, Hyogo, Miyagi and Hokkaido were positive or deferred. The results of the 21 positive samples were subsequently assayed by LIA (lNNOLIA (TM) HTLV I/II) for confirmation; and one sample was positive, and two were indeterminate. We attempted to use polymerase chain reaction

(PCR) to detect HTLV-1 provirus DNA, but we did not detect PCR products for the pX1 region of the HTLV-1 genome in the LIA-positive samples. These negative PCR results are most likely due to the lower sensitivity of the PCR for amplification from milk than from HTLV-1-positive monocytes. In conclusion, the PA method to breast milk samples appears to be a suitable tool to screen for antibodies to HTLV-1 in the breast milk of carrier mothers in cases in which it would be difficult to use serum for the test. Although LIA may be able to confirm HTLV-1 infection, the presence of HTLV-1 provirus should be confirmed in the breast milk.”
“Context A contextual error occurs when a physician does not identify elements of a patient’s environment or behavior, such Alvocidib cell line as access to care, that must be addressed to appropriately plan care. Research has demonstrated that contextual errors can be identified using standardized patients.\n\nObjective To evaluate an educational intervention designed to increase physicians’ skills in incorporating Navitoclax research buy the patient’s context in assessment and management of care

and to thereby decrease the rate of contextual errors.\n\nDesign, Setting, and Participants Quasi-randomized controlled trial, with assessments by blinded observers. Fourth-year medical students (n=124) in internal medicine subinternships at the University of Illinois at Chicago or Jesse Brown Veterans Administration Medical Center between July 2008 and April 2009 and between August 2009 and April 2010 participated and were assessed.\n\nIntervention A 4-hour course on contextualization.\n\nMain Outcome Measures Probing for contextual issues in an encounter, probing for medical issues in an encounter, and developing an appropriate treatment plan. Outcomes were assessed using 4 previously validated standardized patient encounters performed by each participant and were adjusted for subinternship site, academic year, time of year, and case scenario.

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