“SalmonellaTyphimurium isolate D23580 represents a recently identified ST313 lineage of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellae (iNTS). One of the differences between this lineage and other non-iNTS S.Typhimurium isolates is the presence of prophage BTP1. This prophage encodes a gtrC gene, implicated
in O-antigen see more modification. GtrC(BTP1) is essential for maintaining O-antigen length in isolate D23580, since a gtr(BTP1) mutant yields a short O-antigen. This phenotype can be complemented by gtrC(BTP1) or very closely related gtrC genes. The short O-antigen of the gtr(BTP1) mutant was also compensated by deletion of the BTP1 phage tailspike gene in the D23580 chromosome. This tailspike protein has a putative endorhamnosidase selleck chemicals llc domain and thus may mediate O-antigen cleavage. Expression of the gtrC(BTP1) gene is, in contrast to expression of many other gtr operons, not subject to phase variation and transcriptional analysis suggests that gtrC is produced under a variety of conditions. Additionally, GtrC(BTP1) expression is necessary and sufficient to provide protection against BTP1 phage infection of an otherwise susceptible
strain. These data are consistent with a model in which GtrC(BTP1) mediates modification of the BTP1 phage O-antigen receptor in lysogenic D23580, and thereby prevents superinfection by itself and other phage that uses the same O-antigen co-receptor.”
“Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. “Queen”) leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated
leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 click here mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits.