Zhang, unpublished data) using transposon mutagenesis, we isolated Venetoclax chemical structure prh (positive regulation of hrp regulon) genes, which positively regulate the expression of hrp regulon, from the Japanese strain OE1-1. In the prhK, prhL, and prhM mutants, the expression of hrp regulon was completely abolished. prhK, prhL, and prhM do not belong to any of the known pathogenicity gene families in plant pathogenic bacteria. The aim of
this study was to shed light on how the three genes regulate the hrp regulon. We also uncovered the involvement of the three genes in the pathogenicity of R. solanacearum in a couple of host plant species. The R. solanacearum strains, derivatives of the Japanese strains OE1-1 (phylotype I, race 1, biovar 3) (Kanda et al., 2003a) and RS1002 (phylotype I, race 1, biovar 4) (Mukaihara et al., 2004) used in
this study, are listed in Table 1. Escherichia coli strains DH12S (Invitrogen) and S17-1 (Simon et al., 1983) were grown in Luria–Bertani (LB) medium at 37 °C. Ralstonia solanacearum strains were grown at 28 °C in rich B medium or hydroponic plant culture medium supplemented with 2% sucrose (sucrose medium) (Yoshimochi et al., 2009b). Antibiotics were added at the following concentrations: ampicillin U0126 ic50 (Ap, 100 μg mL−1), gentamicin (Gm, 20 μg mL−1), kanamycin (Km, 50 μg mL−1), and polymyxin B (PB, 50 μg mL−1). The β-galactosidase assay was performed as previously described (Yoshimochi et al., 2009b). Enzyme activities were measured at least in triplicate, and averages are presented with SEs. Plasmids designed to create deletion mutants were based on pK18mobsacB (Schäfer et al., 1994). This resulted in plasmids pK18d2171, pK18d2170, and pK18d2169. The construction of the clones is described in detail Buspirone HCl in the Supporting Information, Appendix S1. pK18d2171,
pK18d2170, and pK18d2169 were transferred from E. coli S17-1 into R. solanacearum RK5050 (popA-lacZYA), RK5046 (hrpB-lacZYA), RK5120 (hrpG-lacZYA), RK5212 (prhG-lacZYA), and RK5043 (phcA-lacZYA). Deletion strains were generated through consecutive homologous recombination events. A popA-lacZYA reporter strain of RS1002, RK10001, was constructed using the pK18mobsacB-based plasmid ppop3 (Yoshimochi et al., 2009b). Deletion mutants of RK10001 were constructed using the same techniques as described for RK5050. Genes were cloned into pUC18-mini-Tn7T-Gm (Choi et al., 2005). A detailed cloning procedure is described in Appendix S1. The plasmids, together with a transposase-containing helper plasmid pTNS2, were electroporated into the OE1-1 mutants. The genes on pUC18-mini-Tn7T-Gm were specifically inserted into a single attTn7 site downstream of the glmS gene (Yao & Allen, 2007). The transformant cells were selected on BG agar media supplemented with Gm and PB. Insertion into the attTn7 site was confirmed by colony PCR using primer pair glmS down and Tn7R or Tn7L and rsc0179 upper (Table S1).