By opening the era of an aerobic, oxygen-containing biosphere, th

By opening the era of an aerobic, oxygen-containing biosphere, they are the true pacemakers of geological and biological evolution. Cyanobacteria

must have been among the first organisms to elaborate mechanisms for the detoxification of partially reduced oxygen species including (hydrogen) peroxide. Since there is still an suprising lack of knowledge on the type, role, and mechanism(s) of peroxide-degrading enzymes in these bacteria, all 44 fully or partially sequenced genomes for haem and non-haem catalases and peroxidases have been critically analysed based on well known structure-function relationships of the corresponding oxidoreductases. It is demonstrated that H(2)O(2)-dismutating enzymes are mainly represented by bifunctional (haem) catalase-peroxidases and Cell Cycle inhibitor (binuclear) manganese catalases, with the latter being almost exclusively found in diazotrophic species. Several strains even lack a gene that encodes an enzyme with catalase activity. Two groups of peroxidases are found. Genes encoding putative (primordial) haem peroxidases (with homology to corresponding mammalian enzymes) and vanadium-containing iodoperoxidases are found only in a few species, whereas genes encoding peroxiredoxins (1-Cys, 2-Cys, type II, and Q-type) are ubiquitous in cyanobacteria. In addition, similar to 70% contain NADPH-dependent glutathione peroxidase-like proteins. The occurrence

and phylogeny of these enzymes is discussed, as well as

the present knowledge of their physiological role(s).”
“Study Design. The report PLX4032 concentration of a rare case of lead poisoning by an intradiscal firearm bullet is presented.

Objective. To describe and discuss the clinical and radiologic features (by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) of a gunshot wound in the L2-L3 space which caused lead poisoning 5 years afterwards.

Summary of Background Data. Lead poisoning from firearm bullets is rare, but the possibility should be investigated in the case of bullets lodged in the joints.

Methods. A 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room with an intense lumbar pain complaint, GSK923295 mouse colic, intestinal constipation, insomnia, and progressive headache for 20 days. He had a history of a gunshot wound 5 years previously, and the bullet was left in situ, in the intravertebral disc between L2 and L3, as confirmed by radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The hypothesis of lead poisoning was confirmed by the laboratory results. Chelation treatment with calcium versenate (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, or CaNa (2) EDTA) was indicated. The patient was admitted and treated once again, before surgical removal of the bullet.

Results. After removal of the bullet, the patient had an episode of recurrence, and a new chelation cycle was performed, with complete resolution.

Conclusion. Lead poisoning can result in severe clinical disorders that require rapid treatment.

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