Leukemia (2010) 24, 2048-2055;doi:10 1038/leu 2010 211; published

Leukemia (2010) 24, 2048-2055;doi:10.1038/leu.2010.211; published online 23 September 2010″
“Fragile X syndrome is caused by the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). As a RNA binding protein, FMRP functions in translational regulation, localization, and stability of its neuronal target transcripts. The Drosophila homologue, dFMR1, is well conserved in sequence and function with respect to human FMRP. Although dFMR1 is known to express two main isoforms, the mechanism behind production of the second, more slowly migrating isoform has remained elusive. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether the two isoforms may

also contribute differentially to dFMR1 function. We have found that this Nutlin-3 in vitro second dFMR1 isoform is generated through an alternative

translational start site in the dfmr1 5′UTR. This 5′UTR coding sequence is well conserved in the melanogaster group. Translation this website of the predominant, smaller form of dFMR1 (dFMR1-S(N)) begins at a canonical start codon (ATG), whereas translation of the minor, larger form (dFMR1-L(N)) begins upstream at a non-canonical start codon (CTG). To assess the contribution of the N-terminal extension toward dFMR1 activity, we generated transgenic flies that exclusively express either dFMR1-S(N) or dFMR1-L(N). Expression analyses throughout development revealed that dFMR1-S(N) is required for normal dFMR1-L(N) expression levels in adult brains. In situ expression analyses showed that either dFMR1-S(N) or dFMR1-L(N) is individually sufficient for proper dFMR1 localization in the nervous system. Functional studies demonstrated that both dFMR1-S(N)

and dFMR1-LN can function independently to rescue dfmr1 null defects in synaptogenesis and axon guidance. Thus, dfmr1 encodes two functional isoforms with respect to expression and activity throughout neuronal development. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fludarabine combination chemotherapy achieves high response rates in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of treatment-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) after treatment with fludarabine in combination A-769662 datasheet for lymphoproliferative disorders and identify risk factors for its development. In all, 176 patients treated with fludarabine combination were followed for a median of 41 months (range 6-125 months). In all, 19 cases of t-MDS/AML have been identified for an overall rate of 10.8%. Median overall survival post-t-MDS/AML diagnosis was 11 months. Patients developing t-MDS/AML included 11/54 with follicular lymphoma (FL) (crude rate 20.4%), 5/82 with CLL (6.1%) and 3/24 with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia or marginal zone lymphoma (12.5%).

Agents that block the induction or slow the spread of CSD may be

Agents that block the induction or slow the spread of CSD may be of utility in treating migraine. Here we examined the ability of propofol hemisuccinate (PHS), a water-soluble prodrug of propofol, to affect CSD

in mice. For comparison, we examinined dizocilpine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, that is well recognized to inhibit CSD. When administered ATM inhibitor 15 min prior to activation of CSD by KCI application to the cortex, intraperitoneal PHS at doses of 120 and 200 mg/kg decreased the number of CSD deflections without an effect on CSD amplitude, and at 200 mg/kg caused a 77% reduction in CSD velocity. The minimally-effective dose of PHS (120 mg/kg) did not cause sedation or motor impairment and while some animals receiving 200 mg/kg did demonstrate motor impariment

none exhibited loss-of-righting reflex (anesthesia). Dizocilpine produced comparable inhibition of CSD at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg. We conclude that acute PHS treatment inhibits CSD. Our results indicate that propofol, or its prodrug PHS, are worthy of further investigation as a treatment for migraine. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights selleck products reserved.”
“Purpose: Transitioning care of patients with spina bifida to adult centers poses a challenge. We sought patient and parent perspectives on the transition process at our center and correlated these perspectives with medical outcomes.

Materials and Methods: Patients who attended the adult spina bifida clinic at our institution were invited to complete SF-36(R), the Ambulatory

Care Experience Survey and a Transition of Care Survey. Urological and neurosurgical medical outcomes were correlated with health status, clinic experience and perspectives on the transition process. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS(R), version 16.0.

Results: Of 105 patients with spina bifida 24 participated in the study. SF-36 results to showed that the physical health domain correlated with lack of employment (p = 0.006). Patients whose parents completed the surveys on their behalf were more likely to have physical limitations than the patients who completed surveys (p = 0.011). Urological and neurosurgical outcomes did not significantly affect SF-36, Ambulatory Care Experience Survey or Transition of Care Survey scores in this patient population. Patients and caregivers identified similar key elements and barriers in the transition process. Satisfaction with care at the pediatric center was higher than at the adult center.

Conclusions: Transitioning care of patients with spina bifida from pediatric to adult care poses challenges for the health care system. Medical outcomes do not impact the patient perspective of the transition process. To optimize the transition of care we must address the barriers identified by patients and their caregivers.”
“Quinine specifically blocks connexin 36 (Cx36), one of the proteins that form gap junction channels.

A subset of patients

have progressive, drug-refractory di

A subset of patients

have progressive, drug-refractory diastolic heart failure with severely limiting symptoms caused by low cardiac output. Heart transplantation has been the only therapeutic option available for such patients. This study analyzes clinical and hemodynamic outcomes of a novel surgical technique to improve diastolic filling by means of left ventricular cavity enlargement.

Methods: Forty-four symptomatic patients underwent apical myectomy to augment left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Myectomy was performed through an apical incision, and hypertrophic muscle was excised at the apex and midventricle. Information from a prospective database was supplemented by surveys, patient contact, and medical records.

Results: The mean age of P5091 cell line the patients was 50 +/- 17 years, and 66% were women. All patients were severely limited with dyspnea, www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-431542.html 61% had angina, and 59% had syncope/presyncope. Ninety-one percent of patients were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. A mean of 16 +/- 7 g of muscle was removed. Preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic catheterization (n = 14) showed a decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic

pressure from 28 +/- 9 to 24 +/- 7 mmHg (P-.002) and an increase in end-diastolic volume index from 55 +/- 17 to 68 +/- 18 mL/m(2) (P=.003). Invasive measurements of stroke volume increased from 56 +/- 17 to 63 +/- 19 mL (P=.007). Of the 42 patients who survived to hospital discharge, 41 had improvement in symptoms. Mean peak maximum oxygen consumption with exercise (n 5) increased from 13.5 +/- 4.4 to 15.8 +/- 4.6

mL/kg per minute. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 95%, 81%, and 81%, respectively. At follow-up of 2.6 +/- 3.1 years, 23 (74%) patients were in New York Heart Association class I or II. One patient underwent heart transplantation 5 years after apical myectomy.

Conclusions: Apical myectomy improves functional status by decreasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, improving operative compliance, and increasing stroke volume. This procedure might be of value in other patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who have severe hypertrophy and small left ventricular end-diastolic volume. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;139:634-40)”
“Action observation influences action execution; Bcl-w this strong coupling is underlined by an overlap of cortical areas activated during observation and execution of action, and is dependent of specific motor experience. The goal of the present study was to verify if action observation can be used for rehabilitation of elderly people. We tested this question with a protocol of observational practice of 2 frequently used movements: walking and sit-to-stand/back-to-sit. Both tasks were performed at normal and maximal speed before and after training, by 8 elderly subjects.

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights

reserved “

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

“In this paper, we develop a mathematical model concerning a chemostat with impulsive state feed back see more control to investigate the periodicity of bioprocess. By the existence criteria of periodic solution of a general planar impulsive autonomous system, the conditions under which the model has a periodic solution of order one are obtained. Furthermore, we estimate the position of the periodic solution of order one and discuss the existence of periodic solution of order two. The theoretical results and numerical simulations indicate that the chemostat system with impulsive state feedback control either tends to a R406 clinical trial stable state or has a periodic solution, which depends on the feedback state, the control parameter of the dilution rate and the initial concentrations of microorganisms and substrate. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“New habitat-based models for spread of hantavirus are developed which account for interspecies interaction. Existing habitat-based models do not consider

interspecies pathogen transmission, a primary route for emergence of new infectious diseases and reservoirs in wildlife and man. The modeling of interspecies transmission has the potential to provide more accurate predictions of disease persistence and emergence dynamics. The new models are motivated by our recent work on hantavirus in rodent communities in Paraguay. Our Paraguay an data illustrate the spatial and temporal overlaps among rodent species, one of which is the reservoir species for Jabora virus and others which are spillover NU7026 nmr species. Disease transmission occurs when their habitats overlap. Two mathematical

models, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) and a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model, are developed for spread of hantavirus between a reservoir and a spillover species. Analysis of a special case of the ODE model provides an explicit expression for the basic reproduction number, R(0), such that if R(0)<1, then the pathogen does not persist in either population but if R(0) > 1, pathogen outbreaks or persistence may occur. Numerical simulations of the CTMC model display sporadic disease incidence, a new behavior of our habitat-based model, not present in other models, but which is a prominent feature of the seroprevalence data from Paraguay. Environmental changes that result in greater habitat overlap result in more encounters among various species that may lead to pathogen outbreaks and pathogen establishment in a new host. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It has been theorized that sensorimotor processing deficits underlie Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor impairments including movement under proprioceptive control.

Perforators that were not apparent on VE limited our ability to a

Perforators that were not apparent on VE limited our ability to accomplish transpositioning of the offending vessels as simulated. The positions Of Structures that can affect individual Surgical approaches, such as the petrosal vein, cerebellar floculus, and vertebral artery, were also adequately predicted on VE. All patients had excellent Surgical outcomes.


Presurgical VE in patients with trigeminal neuralgia or HFS is a novel technique that provides excellent visualization of the three-dimensional relations between neurovascular Structures and allows simulation of MVD.”
“Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a potentially effective adaptive immune response to human immunodeficiency CB-839 virus (HIV) infection. The study of ADCC responses has been hampered by the lack

of simple methods to quantify these responses and map effective epitopes. We serendipitously observed that standard intracellular cytokine assays on fresh whole blood from a cohort of 26 HIV-infected subjects identified non-T lymphocytes expressing gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) AZD1480 ic50 in response to overlapping linear peptides spanning HIV-1 proteins. The effector cells were CD3(-) CD4(-) CD8(-) CD14(-) CD2(+) CD56(+/-) NK lymphocytes and degranulated granzyme B and perforin in response to antigen stimulation. Serum transfer assays demonstrated that the specific response was mediated by see more immunoglobulin G. Fresh blood samples from half of the HIV-infected cohort demonstrated robust HIV peptide-specific IFN-gamma expression by NK cells, predominately to Env, Pol, and Vpu HIV-1 proteins. Responses were readily mapped to define minimal epitopes utilizing this assay. Antibody-dependent, HfV-specific NK cell recognition, involving components of both innate and adaptive immune systems, represents a potentially effective immune response to induce by vaccination.”
“OBJECTIVE: The accuracy of motor axon regeneration becomes an important

issue in the development of a nerve tube for motor nerve repair. Dispersion of regeneration across the nerve tube may lead to misdirection and polyinnervation. In this study, we present a series of methods to investigate the accuracy of regeneration, which we used to compare regeneration across autografts and single-lumen poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nerve tubes. We also present the concept of the multichannel nerve tube that may limit dispersion by separately guiding groups of regenerating axons.

METHODS: The simultaneous tracing of the tibial and peroneal nerves with fast blue and diamidino yellow was performed 8 weeks after the repair of a 1-cm nerve gap in the rat sciatic nerve to determine the percentage of double-projecting motoneurons.

From September 1996 to October 2008, 101 patients (52 males, 49 f

From September 1996 to October 2008, 101 patients (52 males, 49 females) with BCS secondary to occlusion of the hepatic veins were prospectively treated using PTBA of the hepatic vein. Average age was 31.3 years (range, 15-57 years). Nineteen had concurrent inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction. All the patients presented with symptomatic portal hypertension. PTBA, with or without stenting, was per-formed after hepatovenography.

Results. PTBA was successfully Wortmannin cell line performed in 92 of the 101 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent PTBA of right hepatic vein, followed by stent placement in two. PTBA was performed

in 11 patients with left hepatic vein occlusion and ill 13 patients with dominant accessory hepatic vein occlusion. The technical success rate was 92 of 101 (91%). Hepatic venous pressure was significantly decreased after balloon angioplasty/stenting (P < .01, paired t test). Symptoms were significantly improved in the 92 patients who had successful PTBA. Three patients had acute hepatic vein thrombosis during or after PTBA. Two patients sustained intraperitoneal bleeding from the transhepatic puncture track, and SC79 one had intrahepatic hematoma. Pulmonary embolism developed in one patient during the operation. All complications were managed nonoperatively. There were no perioperative deaths. Within 1 year, 74 of the 101 patients returned

for follow-up, and 51 patients had follow-up at 2 years. The primary patency rates were 84% (62 of

74), 78% (58 of 74), and 76% (39 or 51) at 6, 12, and 24 months after PTBA, respectively. The secondary patency rates were 95% (70 of 74), 92% (68 of 74), and 84% CHIR-99021 purchase (43 of 51) at 6, 12, and 24 months.

Conclusions. PTBA of the hepatic vein is a safe and effective treatment of BCS. It is currently the most physiologic procedure, and the risk of postoperative encephalopathy is minimized because portal flow is not diverted. Midterm outcomes are satisfactory. Further investigation of the long-term outcomes is needed. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:1079-84.)”
“OBJECTIVE: Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) is a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-specific enzyme involved in various inflammatory diseases. We studied its role in and the effect of ibudilast, which predominantly blocks PDE-4, on rat cerebral aneurysms.

METHODS: Cerebral aneurysms were induced at the anterior cerebral artery-olfactory artery bifurcation of female rats subjected to hypertension, increased hemodynamic stress, and estrogen deficiency. The effect of ibudilast (30 or 60 mg/kg/d for 3 months) on their cerebral aneurysms was studied by morphological and immunohistochemical assessment and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. In our in vitro study, we grew endothelial cells stimulated by angiotensin II under estrogen-free conditions and examined the effect of ibudilast on PDE-4 activation and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate level.

The focus is on severe and moderate TBIs A systematic literature

The focus is on severe and moderate TBIs. A systematic literature search of the years from 1980 to 2009 revealed 27 large phase III trials in TBI; we were aware of a further 6 unpublished trials. Analysis of these 33 trials

yielded interesting observations:

There was a peak incidence of trial initiations that occurred in the mid-1990s with a sharp decline during the period from 2000 to 2004.

Most trials that reported a significant treatment effect were studies on a therapeutic strategy (e. g., decompressive craniectomy, hypothermia), and these were single-center studies.

Increasingly, GDC-0449 clinical trial studies have been shifting toward the Far East.

The currently existing trial registries permit insight FGFR inhibitor into ongoing or recently conducted trials. Compared with the past decade, the number of studies on neuroprotective agents taken forward into efficacy-oriented studies is low. In contrast, the number of studies

on therapeutic strategies appears to be increasing again.

The disappointing results in trials on neuroprotective agents in TBI have led to a critical reappraisal of clinical trial methodology. This has resulted in recommendations for preclinical workup and has triggered extensive analysis on approaches to improve the design and analysis of clinical trials in TBI. An interagency initiative toward standardization on selection and coding of data elements across the broad spectrum of TBI is ongoing, and will facilitate comparison of research findings across studies and encourage high-quality meta-analysis of individual patient data in the future.”
“Clinical trials in traumatic brain injury (TBI) pose complex

methodological challenges, largely related to the heterogeneity of the population. The International Mission on Prognosis and Clinical Trial Design in TBI study group has explored approaches for dealing with this heterogeneity with the aim to optimize clinical trials in TBI. Extensive prognostic analyses and simulation studies were conducted on individual patient data from eight trials and three observational studies. EPZ-6438 manufacturer Here, we integrate the results of these studies into the International Mission on Prognosis and Clinical Trial Design in TBI recommendations for design and analysis of trials in TBI:

Details of the major baseline prognostic characteristics should be provided in every report on a TBI study; in trials they should be differentiated per treatment group. We also advocate the reporting of the baseline prognostic risk as determined by validated prognostic models.

Inclusion criteria should be as broad as is compatible with the current understanding of the mechanisms of action of the intervention being evaluated. This will maximize recruitment rates and enhance the generalizability of the results.

The statistical analysis should incorporate prespecified covariate adjustment to mitigate the effects of the heterogeneity.

Questionnaires exist for estimating walking capacity, but these h

Questionnaires exist for estimating walking capacity, but these have limited use in routine clinical practice. We sought to establish the feasibility and validity of the estimating ambulation capacity by history questionnaire (EACH-Q), a self-administered, four-item questionnaire that estimates walking capacity in patients reporting

vascular-type claudication.

Background: The EACH-Q estimates the maximal duration that can be attained (eight possibilities: Selleckchem Nutlin3 from impossible to 3 hours or more) at four different displacement speeds (from slow walking to running). Scores can be obtained easily by multiplying the rank of each possible answer (impossible being zero) by a speed factor.

Methods: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) and the EACH-Q were completed by 218 patients with vascular-type claudication, undergoing treadmill exercise testing. We hypothesized that less errors (ie, missing, duplicated, or paradoxical answers) and missing final scores would be observed for the EACH-Q than the WIQ. Validity was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients (r) between the Romidepsin molecular weight questionnaire scores (both questionnaires, noncorrected and corrected) and treadmill

maximal walking distance (MWD: 3.2 km/h, 10% slope, maximized to 15 minutes).

Results: Compared with the EACH-Qs, nearly twice as many WIQs had to be corrected for one or more errors (52% vs 28%; P < .0001). This resulted in 37 (17%) WIQ versus 18 (8%) EACH-Q scores being missing on noncorrected questionnaires (P < .0001). MWD was 162 m (25-75 degrees percentiles: 91-390 m). The correlation coefficients of WIQ and EACH-Q to MWD were 0.59 and 0.52, respectively, before correction (P = .357) and 0.60 and 0.51, A-769662 cost respectively,

after correction (P = .185).

Conclusions: The EACH-Q is a simple and valid questionnaire for estimating walking capacity in patients with vascular-type claudication. It is easily scored. It might help standardize the reporting of how patients feel about their walking limitation. Further research is needed to validate the EACH-Q in other patient groups and against other treadmill protocols and to assess its reliability and sensitivity. (J Vasc Surg 2011;54:133-8.)”
“Objective: To examine the hypothesis that young adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) would show increased affective bias to painful and nonpainful experimental heat stimuli, as evidenced by an increased responsiveness to warm and hot temperatures. Pain and depression often occur together. Pain is both a sensation and an affective experience. Similarly, depression is associated frequently with somatic symptoms as well as emotional dysphoria. Existing evidence indicates that MDD may be associated with altered pain processing. However, the extent to which alterations in experimentally controlled heat pain sensations are related to increased affective bias in MDD is unknown.

Indirect delivery of endonucleases into target cells by viral vec

Indirect delivery of endonucleases into target cells by viral vectors provides a unique non-transgenic approach to the production of mutated plants. Furthermore, viral vectors can spread into the growing and developing tissues of infected plants, which could provide a unique opportunity to bypass the regeneration step that is often required in direct gene-transfer methods.”
“The past 5 years have seen an explosion of phosphoproteomics methods development. In this review, using epidermal growth-factor signaling as a model, we will discuss how

phosphoproteomics, along with bioinformatics and computational modeling, have impacted key aspects of oncogenic Bromosporine molecular weight signaling such as in the temporal fine mapping of phosphorylation events, and the identification of novel tyrosine kinase substrates and phosphorylation sites. We submit that the next decade will see considerable exploitation of phosphoproteomics in cancer research. Such a phenomenon is already happening as exemplified by its use in promoting the understanding of the molecular etiology of cancer and target-directed therapeutics.”
“BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of shunt malfunction Alvespimycin datasheet is largely made by subjective clinical history and assessment in association with

neurodiagnostic imaging.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of a transcutaneous thermal convection device for the diagnosis of shunt malfunction.

METHODS: We present the results of a trial of a commercially available device under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. All patients had neurodiagnostic studies that defined see more their shunt function at the time of transcutaneous thermal convection measurement. Thirty-seven shunts were studied in 35 patients. To be included, patients had to be between 0 to 18 years of age, had to be due within a 3-month period for routine follow-up evaluations, and had to have neurodiagnostic imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) as part of this visit and a shunt series. All patients were seen in routine follow-up, and none had clinical symptoms of shunt


RESULTS: Three patients had fractured shunts. The remaining 32 patients had functioning shunts as determined by clinical criteria, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans, and, when appropriate, a shunt series. In these remaining patients, flow was initially confirmed in only 40%. After some filtering of the data, this was increased to 51%. Although these results are disappointing, they outline the current issues with the technique and the state of its utility and point to the need for further refinement.

CONCLUSION: Our current research suggests that cerebrospinal fluid flow as detected by thermoconvection analysis is not a reliable indicator of shunt function in the pediatric population.

Both 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibi

Both 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibit PTH gene expression and secretion. Secondary hyperparathyroidism can initially be controlled by a single therapeutic intervention, such as a Pi-restricted diet, a calcimimetic, or an active vitamin D analog. In this review we discuss the mechanisms whereby Pi regulates the parathyroid. Pi has a direct effect on the parathyroid which requires intact parathyroid tissue architecture. The effect of Pi, as of Ca(2+), on PTH gene expression is post-transcriptional and involves the regulated interaction of

parathyroid cytosolic proteins to a defined cis acting sequence in the PTH mRNA. Changes in serum Ca(2+) or Pi regulate the activity of trans acting interacting proteins in this website the parathyroid, which alters their binding to a defined 26 nucleotide SB202190 mouse cis acting instability sequence in the PTH mRNA 3′-untranslated region. The trans factors are either stabilizing or destabilizing factors and their regulated binding to the PTH cis acting element determines the PTH mRNA half-life. The responses of the parathyroid to changes in serum Pi are now being revealed but the sensing mechanisms remain a mystery.”

investigated a possible role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for FKBP12, a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase known to be important in protein assembly, folding and transportation by using Western blotting and microscopic analyses in postmortem brain tissues from elderly controls and the patients with AD. FKBP12 was enriched and localized to neuronal cell bodies and neurites in control brains. Intense immunoreactivity was found in large neurons such as pyramidal cells. Many FKBP12 positive granules were located in the www.selleck.cn/products/bx-795.html cytoplasm and

the proximal portion of dendrites and axons, and in the nuclei. By contrast, the expression of FKBP12 in AD brains was lower than in control brains. Furthermore, numerous intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were stained for FKBP12 in the hippocampal CA1 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and angular gyrus. Neuritic pathology such as neuropil threads and dystrophic neurites (DNs) within senile plaques (SPs) and some reactive astrocytes were also immunolabeled for FKBP12 in AD. Double immunofluorescence staining showed dual labeling of intracellular NFTs for FKBP12 and tau. Similar results were obtained in reactive astrocytes for the combination of FKBP12 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Labeling for FKBP12 was dense in axons stained for highly phosphorylated neurofilament protein. Thus our results suggest that FKBP12 may be involved in neuronal or astrocytic cytoskeletal organization and in the abnormal metabolism of tau protein in AD damaged neurons. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.