Self-reported weight and physical activity levels had been valida

Self-reported weight and physical activity levels had been validated previously. Emricasan manufacturer The adjusted mean difference in weight gain relative to never-smokers (the reference group) was estimated for different levels of tobacco exposure.

Results. After adjusting for age, baseline

body mass index, sedentary lifestyle, changes in physical activity level, total energy intake, fiber intake, food consumption between meals, and sugary soft drink, fast food and alcohol consumption, it was found that individuals who stopped smoking during follow-up had a greater relative weight gain: men 1.63 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.19 kg), and women 1.51 kg (95% CI, 1.11-1.91 kg). In addition, active smokers had a greater weight gain than never-smokers: men 0.49 kg (95% CI, 0.11-0.87 kg), and women 0.36 kg (95% CI, 0.07-0.65 kg).

Conclusions. Individuals who stopped smoking during follow-up and active smokers both experienced significantly

greater weight gains than never-smokers. This association between cardiovascular risk factors should be taken into account when developing prevention programs.”
“Background. Obesity is considered a low-grade inflammatory state and has been associated with increased acute phase proteins as well as changes in serum fatty acids. Few studies selleckchem have assessed associations between acute phase proteins and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Objective. To investigate IPI-145 in vitro the relationship between acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein, Orosomucoid, and Albumin) and serum fatty acids in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Twenty-two morbidly obese patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical and clinical data were obtained before

bariatric surgery, and fatty acids measured in preoperative serum. Results. Orosomucoid was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (P = 0.037) and positively with arachidonic acid (AA) (P = 0.035), AA/EPA ratio (P = 0.005), and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (P = 0.035). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was negatively correlated with lauric acid (P = 0.048), and both CRP and CRP/Albumin ratio were negatively correlated with margaric acid (P = 0.010, P = 0.008, resp.). Albumin was positively correlated with EPA (P = 0.027) and margaric acid (P = 0.008). Other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum fatty acids are linked to acute phase proteins in morbidly obese patients.”
“Fibrous actomyosin gel was obtained by applying an external shear stress to actomyosin solution injected from a syringe and then performing chemical cross-linking. The actomyosin gel shrunk when ATP was added, and the shrinkage ratio was proportional to its ATPase activity. The shrinkage of the gel was repeatable at least for four times.

Interventions: Time to failure on the modified Romberg Test of St

Interventions: Time to failure on the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces.

Main Outcome Measures: History of falling in the previous 12 months.

Results: GSK2879552 molecular weight We observed that the time to failure decreased with increasing age across all sex and race/ethnicity categories. We found that once individuals went below a time to failure of 20 seconds, there was a significant greater than 3-fold increase in the odds of falling. In general, participants crossed the 20-second threshold at the age of 60 to 69 years.

Conclusion: We established nationally representative normative values

for performance on the modified Romberg test and noted differences in the rates of change across demographic groups. In addition, we demonstrated the fall risk associated with different LY411575 levels of performance. These data will aid the clinician in interpreting and risk stratifying their patient’s performance on this postural test.”
“Both Billroth I (B-I) and Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstructions are commonly performed as standard

procedures, but it has yet to be determined which reconstruction is better for patients. A randomized prospective phase II trial with body weight loss at 1 year after surgery as a primary endpoint was performed to address this issue. The current report delivers data on the quality of life and degree of postoperative dysfunction, which were the secondary endpoints of this study.

Gastric cancer patients who underwent distal gastrectomy were intraoperatively randomized to B-I or R-Y. Postsurgical QOL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and DAUGS check details 20.

Between August 2005 and December 2008, 332 patients were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing B-I versus R-Y. A mail survey questionnaire sent to 327 patients was completed by 268 (86.2%) of them. EORTC QLQ-C30 scores were as follows: global health status was similar in each group (B-I 73.5 +/- A 18.8, R-Y 73.2 +/- A 20.2, p = 0.87). Scores of five functional scales were also similar. Only the dyspnea symptom scale showed superior results for R-Y than for B-I (B-I 13.6 +/- A 17.9, R-Y 8.6 +/- A 16.3, p = 0.02). With

respect to DAUGS 20, the total score did not differ significantly between the R-Y and B-I groups (24.8 vs. 23.6, p = 0.41). Only reflux symptoms were significantly worse for B-I than for R-Y (0.7 +/- A 0.6 vs. 0.5 +/- A 0.6, p = 0.01).

The B-I and R-Y techniques were generally equivalent in terms of postoperative QOL and dysfunction. Both procedures seem acceptable as standard reconstructions after distal gastrectomy with regard to postoperative QOL and dysfunction.”
“In this study, physicochemical, microbiological and bioactive properties, major sugar and aroma profiles of total 20 artisanal (n = 10) and retail (n = 10) honey samples harvested in Turkey were determined. Physicochemical analyses showed that all honey samples were fresh and with good properties.

Finally, top-line results from the ’147 trial (Study on Prolongin

Finally, top-line results from the ’147 trial (Study on Prolonging Bone Metastasis-Free Survival in Men With Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer) suggest that denosumab can help prevent bone metastases in prostate cancer, an ability not yet shown by zoledronate.”
“Objective: Repair approaches for the non-vascular meniscus are rarely developed. Recent strategies use scaffold-based techniques and inducing factors. The aim of the study was the investigation of

cell recruitment and re-differentiation inducing factors for a scaffold-based meniscus repair approach.

Method: 3D cultivation of in vitro expanded human meniscus-derived cells was performed in high-density cultures supplemented with 25% hyaluronic acid (HA), 10% human serum (HS) or 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor (TGF-beta 3) compared to untreated controls. The in vitro cell recruitment potential of different HS concentrations GSK690693 was tested by chemotaxis assay. Analysis of chondrocytic markers (type I, II, IX collagen and proteoglycans) was performed on protein and gene expression level.

Results: Cells were attracted by 1-20% HS. 3D cultures supplemented with 10% HS and 25% HA showed meniscus-like gene expression profiles at day 7 with significantly increased cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and aggrecan expression levels in the HS group and

a slightly increased profile Etomoxir ic50 in the HA group compared to control. The TGF-beta 3 group showed an additional GSK923295 induction of gene expression levels for type II and type IX collagen. Histological findings confirmed these results by proteoglycan and type I collagen staining in all groups and type II collagen staining only in the TGF-beta 3 group.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that human meniscus cells are attracted by HS and allow for meniscal matrix formation in 3D culture in the presence of HA and HS, whereas TGF-beta 3 additive does not initiate meniscal tissue. Regarding non-vascular meniscus repair, results

of this study encourage scaffold-based repair approaches. (C) 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Erlotinib is a low molecular weight, orally active, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase results in the disruption of processes involved in cancer growth and development, including cell migration, proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

In the well designed, phase III SATURN study, oral erlotinib 150 mg/day as maintenance treatment prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not progressed after four cycles of first-line platinum doublet chemotherapy.

Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas

Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.”
“A retrospective, dual-center, cohort study on the single incision MiniArc sling and the transobturator Monarc sling in the treatment

of stress urinary incontinence is presented. We hypothesized that both systems would perform equally well.

One hundred thirty-one (MiniArc Autophagy inhibitor mouse n = 75, Monarc n = 56) consecutive patients were evaluated. Evaluation was performed by cough stress test (CST), daily pad use, IIQ-7, UDI-6, and a 0-5 visual analog scale for quality of life. The 1-year data are presented.

Six weeks after surgery, 91% of the patients in both populations had a negative CST. At 1 year,

85% of the MiniArc group and 89% of the Monarc group (p = 0.60) maintained a negative CST. QoL, symptom scores, and number of pads improved significantly and were comparable in both groups. Complication rates were similar.

These results suggest that MiniArc sling and Monarc sling are equally effective in the treatment of stress incontinence at 1 year follow-up.”
“P>In BV-6 this study, the meiotic role of MEIOTIC CONTROL OF CROSSOVERS1 (MCC1), a GCN5-related histone N-acetyltransferase, is described in Arabidopsis. Analysis of the over-expression Wnt mutation mutant obtained by enhancer activation tagging revealed that acetylation of histone H3 increased in male prophase I. MCC1 appeared to be required in meiosis for normal chiasma number and distribution and for chromosome segregation. Overall, elevated MCC1 did not affect crossover number per cell, but has a differential effect on individual chromosomes elevating COs for chromosome 4, in which there is also a shift in chiasma

distribution, and reducing COs for chromosome 1 and 2. For the latter there is a loss of the obligate CO/chiasma in 8% of the male meiocytes. The meiotic defects led to abortion in about half of the male and female gametes in the mutant. In wild type, the treatment with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, phenocopies MCC1 over-expression in meiosis. Our results provide evidence that histone hyperacetylation has a significant impact on the plant meiosis.”
“Attribution of biological robustness to the specific structural properties of a regulatory network is an important yet unsolved problem in systems biology. It is widely believed that the topological characteristics of a biological control network largely determine its dynamic behavior, yet the actual mechanism is still poorly understood.

003) T1b cancer showed well-enhancing mucosal thickening more fr

003). T1b cancer showed well-enhancing mucosal thickening more frequently than did T1a cancer (P = .002). By using the modified CT criteria, the overall accuracy values of T staging and N staging were 64.9% (96/148) and 79.1% (117/148) for reviewer 1 and 63.5% (94/148) and 83.8% (124/148) for reviewer 2, respectively. Weighted k values of T and N staging were 0.795 and 0.641, respectively.

Conclusion: selleck On multidetector CT images, T1a cancer shows different imaging features than does T1b cancer regarding enhancing characteristics and detectability. Multidetector CT provides relatively valuable results of T and N staging, including

differentiation between T1a, T1b, and T2 gastric cancers.”
“We analyze theoretically the characteristics of electron transport through double quantum dots between which time oscillating and spin-polarization-dependent tunneling occurs. General formulas for the time-averaged current Napabucasin nmr (spin current and charge current) and its differential are obtained by Keldysh nonequilibrium, Green’s function, and the transport properties derived from those formulas, can be qualitatively explained by spin-dependent resonant tunneling images. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554830]“
“The fibrinolytic system is often the target for pathogenic bacteria, resulting in increased fibrinolysis, bacterial dissemination,

and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore whether proteases NprB and InhA

secreted by Bacillus anthracis could activate the host’s fibrinolytic RSL3 research buy system. NprB efficiently activated human pro-urokinase plasminogen activator (pro-uPA), a key protein in the fibrinolytic cascade. Conversely, InhA had little effect on pro-uPA. Plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI)-1, 2 and the uPA receptor were also targets for NprB in vitro. InhA efficiently degraded the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in vitro. Mice infected with B. anthracis showed a significant decrease in blood TAR levels. In another mouse experiment, animals infected with isogenic inhA deletion mutants restored TAFI levels, while the levels in the parent strain decreased. We propose that NprB and InhA may contribute to the activation of the fibrinolytic system in anthrax infection.”
“Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement in malignant hepatic tumors and to examine the influence of imaging methods, lesion location, and lesion size on the reproducibility of ADC measurement.

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and informed consent was obtained. Forty-nine patients underwent both breath-hold and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-T system twice. Two independent readers measured the ADC of the largest malignant hepatic tumor for each patient on each image sets.

Sixty children (31 males, 29 females), born in 1989-1995, were ev

Sixty children (31 males, 29 females), born in 1989-1995, were evaluated from June 2006 to May 2007. Ultrasound of the bladder and the upper urinary tract was performed in all patients. Surgical and pharmacological intervention, bowel function, faecal and urinary continence were registered. Renal function was assessed by <SU51</SUCr-EDTA and/or MAG-3 scintigraphy in patients who had previously experienced affected renal function or presented with deteriorated bladder function. Results. Two children died during follow-up. In total, 47 urological procedures were performed in 23 patients. The most frequently conducted procedures were appendicovesicostomy (n = 11) and autoaugmentation

Lazertinib datasheet (n = 11). Fourteen patients underwent untethering procedures, resulting in improved bladder function in five patients; nine were unaltered. Five patients had a moderate and two a severe decrease in glomerular filtration rate. Eighty-one per cent were performing clean intermittent catheterization, starting at a median age of 3.6 years. Anticholinergics were used in 50%. Sixty-two per cent were totally urine continent, 22% used incontinence BI 6727 mw pads in case of leakage and 16% were urine incontinent. Two patients had Malone procedures; 29% were using trans-anal irrigation. Eighty-three per cent were totally

faecal continent. Conclusion. Close follow-up and appropriate intervention have improved renal function in children with congenital spinal malformation, but renal deterioration remains a risk. Total faecal and urinary continence could be achieved in 81% and 62%, respectively.”
“Objectives: To describe the epidemiological profile, risk behaviors, and the prior history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed at the Centro de Referencia e Treinamento em DST/AIDS of Sao Paulo. The social, demographic, behavioral, and clinical data such as age,

schooling, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, parity, use of drugs, time of HIV diagnosis, CD4 count, and viral load determination were abstracted from the medical records of women living with AIDS who had gynecological consultation scheduled in the period from June 2008 to May 2009.

Results: Out of 710 women who were scheduled to OSI-744 purchase a gynecological consultation during the period of the study, 598 were included. Previous STD was documented for 364 (60.9%; 95% CI: 56.9%-64.8%) women. The associated factors with previous STDs and their respective risks were: human development index (HDI) <0.50 (ORaj = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.8-11.0); non-white race (ORaj = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0); first sexual intercourse at or before 15 years of age (ORaj = 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.3); HIV infection follow-up time of nine years or more (ORaj = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3-7.8)]; number of sexual partners during the entire life between three and five partners (ORaj = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3531565]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3531565]“
“Here we present the ascidian

Ciona intestinalis as an alternative invertebrate system to study Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Through the use of AD animal models, researchers often attempt to reproduce various aspects of the disease, particularly the coordinated processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by alpha-, beta- and gamma-secretases to generate amyloid beta (A beta)-containing plaques. Recently, Drosophila and C. elegans AD models have been developed, exploiting the relative simplicity of these invertebrate systems, but they lack a functional A beta sequence and a beta-secretase ortholog, thus complicating efforts to examine APP processing in vivo. We propose that the ascidian is a more appropriate invertebrate AD model owing to their phylogenetic relationship with humans. This is supported by bioinformatic analyses, this website BMS-345541 chemical structure which indicate that the ascidian genome contains orthologs of all AD-relevant genes. We report that transgenic ascidian larvae can properly process human APP(695) to generate A beta peptides. Furthermore, A beta can rapidly aggregate to form amyloid-like plaques, and plaque

deposition is significantly increased in larvae expressing a human APP(695) variant associated with familial Alzheimer’s disease. We also demonstrate that nervous system-specific A beta expression alters normal larval behavior during attachment. Importantly, plaque formation and alterations in behavior are not only observed within 24 hours post-fertilization, but anti-amyloid drug treatment improves these AD-like pathologies. This ascidian model for AD

provides a powerful and rapid system to study APP processing, A beta plaque formation and behavioral alterations, and could aid in identifying factors that modulate amyloid deposition and the associated disruption of normal cellular function and behaviors.”
“The grafted copolymer (SBS-g-MBP) click here with different grafting ratio, synthesized by our laboratory, was irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation with different time. The structure of SBS-g-MBP before and after UV exposure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and the results confirmed that the UV-cross-linked structure was formed. The gel fraction before and after UV exposure was discussed, and the results indicated that the gel fraction increased with both exposure time and grafting ratio, and it also indicated the gel fraction was affected mainly by the exposure time. Further-more, the results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the mode of fracture surfaces transmitted gradually from tough fracture to brittle fracture. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyzer indicated that the crosslinking has taken place in the polybutadiene block, and the thermal property was improved after UV exposure.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 114: 222-230, 2

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 222-230, 2009″
“Aim: To evaluate the influence of topical iodine-containing antiseptics on neonatal TSH in fullterm infants

born by Caesarean section in an iodine sufficient area.

Population and Methods: Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was estimated in 86 mothers on the second day after delivery by Caesarean section and their 86 full-term neonates. The mothers were divided DNA Damage inhibitor into two groups according to the use of antiseptic to prepare Cesarean sections: 42 mothers who were prepared with povidone-iodine (Isosept (R), Bosnalijek) comprised the study group, and 47 mothers who were prepared with alcoholic solution (Skinsept (R) color, Ecolab) formed the control group. Neonatal TSH was measured in whole blood drawn between day 3 and 5 of life, spotted on filter paper using a sensitive fluorometric assay (Delfia).

Results: Maternal and neonatal UIE were significantly higher (p <0.05) in the study group compared to the control group. No significant difference was found for neonatal TSH.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that perinatal iodine exposure

of full-term neonates who were born by Caesarean section in an iodine sufficient area did not influence neonatal TSH, although median UIE was higher, suggesting optimal iodine intake during pregnancy. Further research is needed to define a critical value of urinary iodine concentrations in full-term neonates in an iodine sufficient area that may lead to the impairment of thyroid function.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to determine LDK378 nmr the prevalence and bother of postmicturition dribble in relation to age in the male population. Material and methods. Information for a population-based study was collected by means of a mailed Selleckchem ABT 263 self-administered questionnaire, which was returned by 4384 men out of 7470 (58.7%). The participants were men aged 30-80 years from the Pirkanmaa Region in Finland. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire was used to evaluate their urinary symptoms. SPSS was used

in the data analysis. Two-sided chi-squared test and Kendall tau-b test were used for analysis. Results. The overall prevalence of postmicturition dribble was 58.1% (95% confidence interval 56.6-59.6). Prevalence of postmicturition dribble increased with age (p < 0.001). In men aged 60-80 years, two-thirds reported postmicturition dribble and approximately one out of four had dribbling into their trousers after voiding. In the 30-year-old group, over 40% reported postmicturition dribble and almost one out of five had also dribbling into their trousers. One out of five men in the 30-year-old group reported minor bother; the proportion of men reporting bother increased with age to one-third of the men in the oldest cohort (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of the postmicturition dribble was found to be high in this survey.

Total thyroidectomy is a therapeutic option for both malignant an

Total thyroidectomy is a therapeutic option for both malignant and benign disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the number of total thyroidectomy surgeries and the rate of benign and malignant histologic exams over the last decade.

Methods: Hospital discharge records in the Emilia Romagna region (Italy) that reported total thyroidectomy as the principal surgical procedure and included the relative histologic diagnosis were reviewed for

the period 2000 to 2010. Mean increment and geometric mean of increments per year were calculated to evaluate differences over the years.

Results: More than 25,000 patients underwent 3-deazaneplanocin A ic50 total thyroidectomy between 2000 and 2010. The total number of thyroidectomies increased over this period, with a mean increment of 7.16% per year. The percentage of malignancies among the total number of thyroidectomies increased from 26.1% (2000) to 39.9% (2010) (mean increment, 1.38% per year). Nontoxic multinodular goiter was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for 36% of all thyroidectomies.

Conclusions: Between 2000 and 2010, the proportion of patients thyroidectomized for benign disease progressively decreased, as documented by a lower thyroidectomy/malignancy ratio. Currently, about 60% of thyroid GDC-0994 interventions are performed for benign pathology. Improved preoperative

diagnostic accuracy and the availability of nonsurgical procedures will presumably further reduce the number of thyroidectomies with benign histologic diagnoses.”
“Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the quantitative results of functional and cognitive performance of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and disease severity; and to study the relationship between patients’ functional and cognitive capacity and motor impairment (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-UPDRS III). Method: Twenty-nine subjects clinically diagnosed with PD were classified

into three groups according to disease severity using the modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (H&Y). They were submitted to functional (Senior Fitness Test) and neuropsychological tests. Stepwise regression analysis showed a significant association between H&Y and upper limb strength (r(2)= 0.30; p=0.005) and executive function (r(2)=0.37; p=0.004). In relation P505-15 supplier to UPDRS III, there was a significant association between lower limb strength (r(2)=0.27; p=0.010) and global cognitive status (r(2)=0.24; p=0.024). Conclusion: The implementation of simple tests of functional capacity associated with neuropsychological testing can help to assess disease severity and motor impairment, and can be used to monitor the response to treatment in PD.”
“Objectives: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign tumors that arise from unregulated growth of Schwann cells. Both benign and malignant tumors are believed to contain tumor stem cells that are hypothesized to originate from dysregulation of tumor suppressors and oncogenes.

The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren may be of benefit in this pa

The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren may be of benefit in this patient group as aliskiren targets the RAAS at the rate-limiting step. In this double-blind study, 141 patients with hypertension Citarinostat ic50 (mean baseline BP 155/93 mm Hg) and metabolic syndrome (modified National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria) were randomized to aliskiren 300 mg or irbesartan 300 mg once daily. Patients treated with aliskiren 300 mg had their mean sitting blood pressure (BP) lowered by 13.8/7.1 mm Hg after 12 weeks, significantly greater (P <= 0.001) than the 5.8/2.8 mm Hg reduction observed in patients treated with irbesartan 300 mg. A significantly

greater proportion of patients treated with aliskiren achieved BP control to <135/85 mm Hg (29.2 vs 16.7% with irbesartan; P = 0.019). Aliskiren treatment led to a 60% decrease in PRA from baseline, whereas irbesartan increased PRA by 99% (both P<0.001).

Aliskiren and irbesartan had similar effects on glucose and lipid profiles and on a panel of biomarkers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Both aliskiren and irbesartan were well tolerated. Collectively, these results suggest that aliskiren 300 mg may offer treatment benefits compared with irbesartan 300 mg for BP reduction in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Human Hypertension (2011) 25, 186-195; doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.38; published online 8 April 2010″
“Ash-based polymer composites are assuming increasing importance because of the find more pollutant potential, fine particle size, and low price of ash. Fly ash and rice husk ash are two prominent ash materials on which some investigations have already been done for potential use in polymer composites. This article highlights the results of a study on the use of wood ash in HDPE. Wood ash is mainly a mixture of various metallic compounds and some silica.

Here, the characterization of wood ash has been done with the help of XRD, ICPAES, light scattering based particle size analysis, FTIR, and SEM. The Tariquidar cost results show that wood ash particle size has an average value of 293 nm, much lower than other categories of ash. When blended with HDPE in the presence of a compatibilizer, wood ash gives rise to vastly improved mechanical properties over that of the base polymer. The results prove that wood ash is a valuable reinforcing material for HDPE and the environmental pollution due to wood ash can be solved in a most profitable way by this technique. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Twinning in cattle is a complex trait that is associated with economic loss and health issues such as abortion, dystocia, and reduced calf survival.