Conclusion:β-ARs were expressed in vimentin-positive ICs of the <

Conclusion:β-ARs were expressed in vimentin-positive ICs of the RG 7204 human urinary bladder. As for β2- and β3-AR, there was no gender-related difference or age-related correlation in urothelium, ICs and detrusor muscles. In the human urinary bladder, β-ARs expressed in ICs may play a role in bladder physiology. “
“Depression and anxiety are common mental illnesses. It is recognized that depression/anxiety causes physical changes, including insomnia, anorexia, and bladder dysfunction. We aimed to delineate bladder dysfunction in patients with depression/anxiety by reviewing the literature. We performed a systematic review

of the literature to identify the frequency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urodynamic findings, putative underlying pathology, and management of bladder dysfunction in patients with depression/anxiety. From a recent survey of a depression cohort (at a psychiatry clinic), the frequency of bladder dysfunction in depression is lower (up to 25.9%) than that in Parkinson’s disease (up to 75%) and stroke (up to 55%), whereas it is significantly higher BI 6727 chemical structure than that in

age-matched controls (around 10%). In both the depression cohort and the psychogenic bladder dysfunction cohort (at a urology clinic), the most common LUTS was overactive bladder (OAB), followed by difficult urination and infrequent voiding. Compared with severe LUTS, urodynamic findings were dissociated; i.e. urodynamic findings were normal except for increased bladder sensation without detrusor overactivity for OAB (50% of all patients), followed by underactive detrusor without post-void residual for difficult urination. The effectiveness of serotonergic or anti-cholinergic medication

for ameliorating OAB in the patients awaits further study. In conclusion, although the frequency of LUTS among the depression cohort is not elevated, Galactosylceramidase depression/anxiety is obviously a risk factor for OAB. This finding presumably reflects that the bladder is under emotional control. Amelioration of bladder dysfunction is an important target in treating patients with depression/anxiety. Major depression is a common mental illness with a prevalence of around 6% of the general population. It is characterized by feelings of sadness and despair, and causes significant morbidity.[1] Anxiety and stress-related disorders are also common, with estimations of their prevalence in the general population ranging from 2% to 20%. These disorders are characterized by excessive worry and irritability[2] mixed with symptoms of depression. It is well recognized that depression/anxiety causes not only mental but also physical changes. Physical changes associated with depression/anxiety include insomnia,[1] anorexia,[2] tachycardia,[3] sexual/erectile dysfunction,[4-6] bowel dysfunction,[7] and bladder dysfunction (mostly an overactive bladder [OAB, urinary urgency and frequency with/without urinary incontinence]).

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