Huang et al showed that peripheral tolerance induction requires

Huang et al. showed that peripheral tolerance induction requires activation, proliferation and an effector phase 14. Here, we show that i.n. treatment with all three MBP Ac1–9 position analogs induces CD4+ T-cell activation and proliferation in an adoptive transfer model in vivo. Furthermore, we have recently demonstrated that i.n. MBP Ac1–9[4Y] treatment induced IL-10 Treg are of Th1 origin 9, as alluded to here by the ability of CD4+ T cells from i.n. MBP Ac1–9[4Y]-treated mice to co-secrete IFN-γ and IL-10 at

the single cell level. This HIF inhibitor is in direct contrast to the IL-10-secreting T cells generated by treatment with the random amino acid copolymer poly (F,Y,A,K,)n, which also secrete IL-4 and are, therefore, likely of the Th2 lineage 15, 16. Thus, i.n. administration of MBP Ac1–9 does not result in a Th1 to Th2 immune deviation, which, in some cases, can lead to disease exacerbation 17. Instead, the potentially pathogenic Th1 response is driven in a controlled manner by i.n. peptide treatment towards IL-10 secretion. This process mimics chronic infections with intracellular pathogens, where IL-10 plays a role in protecting

against excessive inflammation-associated pathology 18. In fact, it is now clear that all known Th cell subsets, including Th1 19, Th2 20, Th17 21–23 and Th9 cells 24 are able to secrete IL-10 regardless of their commitment Histone Acetyltransferase inhibitor to a given lineage, thus granting them with suppressive activity. Of note, Saraiva et al. have shown recently that both high levels of TCR ligation and/or repeated TCR triggering leads to enhanced IL-10 production

by Th1 cells in vitro25. Although high affinity peptide analogs have also been implicated in other murine models of autoimmune diseases such as collagen Methocarbamol induced arthritis 26, insulin-dependent diabetes 27, experimental myasthenia gravis 28 or lupus 29, their exact mode of action remains unclear. Our data demonstrate that high signal strength is required for effective induction of IL-10 secretion by CD4+ T cells. Inducing IL-10 is important for regulating Th1 responses, thus ensuring tolerance in the face of epitope spreading, which is especially relevant to the development of therapeutic vaccines for autoimmune diseases. Mice were bred and maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. B10.PL mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Tg4 TCR Tg mice were described previously 3 and backcrossed onto the B10.PL (H2u) background. All experiments were carried out in accordance with a UK Home Office Project License and animal welfare codes directed by the University of Bristol ethical review committee.

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