Extracts of samples were assessed for AhR-mediated toxicity, selleckchem (anti-)estrogenicity, (anti-)androgenicity and genotoxicity. The biological responses were interpreted relative to chemical characterization. Historically, for regulatory purposes, evaluation of air pollution was based mainly on assessment of the sum of PM10. In the case of AhR-mediated activity, PM1 was
responsible for more than 75% of the activity of the particulate fraction from all localities. The assessed effects were correlated with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic carbon content and specific surface area of the PM. A significant proportion of biologically active chemicals seems to be present in the gas phase of air. The results suggest that an average daily exposure based just on the concentrations of contaminants contained in PM10, as regulated in EU legislation so far, is not a sufficient indicator of contaminants in air particulates and adoption of standards more similar to other countries and inclusion of other parameters besides mass should be considered. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Patients with chronic hepatitis
B (CHB) who will and those who will not respond to adefovir (ADV) monotherapy need to be identified at an see more early stage in order to adjust treatment and prevent future development of antiviral resistance. In a single-centre cohort study, we investigated 76 CHB patients [50% hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive] treated with long-term ADV monotherapy. During a median follow-up of 122 (24-185) weeks, 42 (55%) patients achieved virologic response (VR), defined as HBV-DNA levels < 10(3) copies/mL, and 10 patients (13%) developed genotypic ADV resistance. Independent baseline predictors of VR were HBeAg negativity [hazard ratio (HR) 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-7.19; P = 0.02], high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.05-1.18; P = 0.001), and low HBV-DNA
levels (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.41-0.75; P < 0.001). HBV-DNA at week 24 demonstrated a higher predictive value for VR than HBV-DNA learn more at week 48. Important predictors of genotypic resistance were presence of cirrhosis (HR 6.54; 95% CI 1.39-30.9; P = 0.018), and not achieving VR during treatment (HR 6.60; 95% CI 1.35-32.4; P = 0.008). Patients without VR at week 24 already demonstrated a trend towards the emergence of ADV resistance (P = 0.07). HBV-DNA at week 24 was a better on-treatment predictor of VR than HBV-DNA at week 48, and ADV-resistant mutations developed more frequently in patients without VR at week 24. Therefore, our study suggests that virologic response to ADV therapy can be assessed at 24 weeks, instead of the generally recommended 48 weeks.”
“We report the properties of anodic layers formed on p-Si substrates in a 50% HF solution with the addition of an oxidizing agent MnO2.