However, there was IL-10 induction by specific stimulation during

However, there was IL-10 induction by specific stimulation during recovery (Figure 2d). On the other hand, IL-10 levels induced by Con A were reduced RG-7388 cell line in both phases, being statistically significant only in the acute period of infection (Figure 2c). This investigation was carried out to establish if inoculation of S. venezuelensis in Lewis rats triggers an infection and a subsequent immunity similar to that described in other rodents and also in human infections by S. stercoralis. In Lewis rats subcutaneously

infected with 4000 L3, parasite eggs were detected in the faeces for the first time at day 6 post-infection, but the maximal egg number was observed at day 8 post-infection. A second peak in the egg number was observed at 11 days post-infection, which decreased steadily thereafter. This Pifithrin-�� manufacturer kinetics in egg number coincided with the amount of parthenogenetic females recovered from the small intestine. The highest amount was detected during the acute phase, whereas a very low number was found at the recovery phase. Considering

these findings, the acute phase occurred around the 8th day and the recovery phase around the 32nd day of infection. This infection kinetics indicates a profile that is similar to infections caused by S. venezuelensis (8) and also by S. ratti in Wistar rats (13). Immunity against Strongyloides spp. is characterized by a typical Th2 pattern with a predominant production of IL-3, IL-4, IL-5 and Clomifene IL-10 (1,3). Elevated levels of IgG1, IgE, eosinophils and intestinal mastocytosis have been abundantly described (3–7). In this study,

both IgG1 and IgG2b specific antibodies were significantly elevated at the acute phase. However, a much higher increase in IgG1 concentration already suggested a stronger Th2 polarization at this period. This tendency became evident at the recovery phase when IgG1 but not IgG2b presented a significant increase compared with that in the acute infection. These results are similar to the ones described in mice infected with S. venezuelensis (3) and Wistar rats infected with S. ratti (5). Wilkes et al., 2007 (5), even called attention for a finding that was very similar to our results, i.e. that there was a significant elevation of IgG1 specific levels during the recovery phase compared with that at the acute phase. They also stressed the fact that IgG1 higher levels coincided with worm elimination. Total IgE was significantly elevated in both the acute and recovery phases. Interestingly, IgE levels were significantly higher in the recovery phase compared with that at the acute period of infection. Although IgE levels have been a hallmark in helminthic infections, its contribution to control these parasites has been, at least, controversial (14). Elevated IgE levels have been reported in both S. venezuelensis and S. ratti experimental infections (5,12). A significant rise in eosinophil number was detected in Lewis rats during the acute phase of S.

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