The s

The GDC973 samples are then transferred to 50% Spur’s low viscosity embedding resin[39] (or equivalent) in acetone, then three changes of 100% resin leaving the last overnight. Small pieces of kidney in resin are positioned at the bottom of plastic moulds or gelatine capsules and cured at 60°C for 24 h in a vented oven. Sections are cut at a thickness of 50–90 nm on a microtome using a diamond knife, collected on formvar-coated grids, and stained with the electron

dense agents uranyl acetate and lead citrate to provide contrast. Saturated uranyl acetate in 50% ethanol is followed by Reynolds’ lead citrate,[40] with each step being 5–20 min depending on the intensity of staining required. Staining is achieved by floating grids specimen side down on a small drop of stain on a piece of Parafilm, with extensive washing with distilled water after each step. When dry, specimens are ready for viewing on an electron microscope and should yield views of primary cilia sectioned at various angles (Fig. 1a,b). As there is only one primary cilium per epithelial cell, many cells may need to be examined to find a cilium in the desired orientation. A cross-section of the renal primary cilium reveals the diagnostic 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubules (Fig. 1b). Towards the tip of the cilium it is not unusual for the 9 + 0 arrangement to

be modified by the loss or displacement of some microtubules.[4, 41] Features such as the apical brush border of the proximal tubule, intercalated cells of the collecting duct and the PS 341 distinctive morphology of the glomerulus are used for orientation.[23] Cultured renal epithelial cells can also

be fixed, embedded and sectioned to visualize primary cilia, providing they are grown on a support that is compatible with solvents used for processing and can be cut using a microtome (i.e. a filter or membrane).[42-44] As for TEM, take appropriate precautions with the toxic reagents used in SEM. Mouse or rat kidneys are perfusion fixed (as described for TEM) with 2.5% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer or cocodylate buffer, then cut into smaller pieces and immersion fixed. Human samples are cut into small pieces and immersion fixed. After washing with buffer, pieces of kidney are dehydrated through increasing ethanol concentrations to 70% ethanol for cryoprotection. The kidney Baf-A1 in vitro is then frozen in liquid nitrogen and fractured into pieces 2–5 mm across using a razor blade. This freeze/fracture process is essential to reveal the internal architecture of the kidney and primary cilia, as tubules and ducts are crushed beyond recognition at surfaces of unfrozen tissue cut with a razor or scalpel blade. Tissue is thawed to room temperature, rehydrated through decreasing ethanol concentrations to water for post-fixing in 1% osmium tetroxide in buffer, washed in distilled water, then dehydrated through increasing ethanol concentrations to three changes of 100% ethanol that has been dried on a molecular sieve.

Comments are closed.