The technique utilizes phase information introduced into the

The technique utilizes phase information introduced into the

MR signal from a small receive coil located on the distal tip of the catheter. Phase patterns around a small receive coil are rich in information that is directly related to position and orientation. This information can be collected over a large spherical volume with a diameter several times that of the receive coil. The high degree of redundancy yields the potential for an accurate and robust method of catheter tracking. A tracking algorithm is presented that performs catheter tip localization using phase images acquired in two orthogonal planes without any a priori knowledge of catheter position. Associated experimentation demonstrating feasibility Y-27632 datasheet is also presented.”
“The vascularized iliac osteocutaneous flap has been used successfully for jaw reconstruction. To obtain a better contour of the reconstructed AZD9291 area in large upper and lower jaw resections, the transferred bone actually needs to be osteotomized. Single

closing-wedge osteotomy of the iliac flap for mandibular reconstruction has been previously described. In this article, the modified multiple osteotomized perforator-based versatile free iliac osteocutaneous flap is described. Eleven cases were enrolled. Seven patients had wide anterior mandibular resections due to oral cavity and mandibular tumors; 3 patients had a defect due to explosive injury and 1 patient had complicated orbitomaxillary defect due to blast injury. Skin paddle was based on the perforators. In 8 patients, the bony segment was divided into 3 segments by 2 osteotomies, whereas in 2 patients the bony segment was divided into 4 segments by 3 osteotomies. In 10 cases, the flap was used for anterior mandibular defects, whereas in 1 case the flap was customized to fit an L-shaped defect at the naso-orbito-maxillary region. The overall flap success rate was 100%. No resorption or morbidity related

to the osteotomy of the bony segments was observed. The size of perforator skin paddle was 6 to 8 x 15 to 18 cm. Physical and radiologic examinations showed proper bone IWR-1-endo manufacturer healing without any additional complications. The modified multiple osteotomized free osteocutaneous iliac flap can provide a safe and versatile bony segment to be arranged and adapted to reconstruct complex mandibular and maxillofacial defects.”
“Persistent left superior vena cava is known to be associated with cor triatriatum. The persistent left superior vena cava drains into a dilated coronary sinus and can cause left atrial outflow obstruction by impinging on the posterior wall of the left atrium. Residual obstruction can persist, even after surgical resection of the cor triatriatum membrane. We describe a novel surgical treatment in a patient with cor triatriatum and persistent left superior vena cava.

RESULTS: The aggregate pregnancy-related mortality ratio for the

RESULTS: The aggregate pregnancy-related mortality ratio for the 8-year period

was 14.5 per 100,000 live births, which is higher than any period in the previous 20 years of the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. African-American women continued to have a three-to four-fold higher risk of pregnancy-related death. The proportion of deaths attributable to hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders declined from previous years, whereas the proportion from medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular, selleck screening library increased. Seven causes of death-hemorrhage, thrombotic pulmonary embolism, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cardiomyopathy, cardiovascular conditions, and noncardiovascular medical conditions-each contributed 10% to 13% of deaths.

CONCLUSION: The reasons for the reported increase in pregnancy-related mortality are unclear; possible factors include an increase in the risk of women dying, changed coding with the International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Revision,

and the addition by states of pregnancy checkboxes to the death certificate. State-based maternal death reviews and maternal quality collaboratives have the potential to identify deaths, review the factors associated with them, and take action on the findings. (Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:1302-9)”
“Fully matured dental enamel is an architecturally and mechanically complex find more hydroxyapatite-based

bioceramic devoid of most of the organic material that was essential in its making. Enamel formation is a staged process principally involving secretory and maturation stages, each associated with major changes in gene expression and cellular function. Cellular activities that define the maturation stage of amelogenesis include ion (e. g., calcium and phosphate) transport and storage, control of intracellular and extracellular pH (e. g., bicarbonate and hydrogen ion movements), and endocytosis. Recent studies on rodent amelogenesis have identified a multitude of gene products that appear to be linked to these cellular activities. This review describes the main cellular activities of these genes GSK690693 clinical trial during the maturation stage of amelogenesis.”
“The fast-paced world of the clinical laboratory encourages laboratory managers to evaluate and implement technological, process, and workspace changes in an effort to improve testing quality, turnaround time, and customer satisfaction. Managers must remember that even the simplest laboratory change may have a ripple effect throughout the entire hospital and/or medical system. This article describes a 7-step approach to assist laboratory managers in disseminating laboratory change to the appropriate customer at the right time.

Inter-study reproducibility demonstrated that ShMOLLI ECV trended

Inter-study reproducibility demonstrated that ShMOLLI ECV trended towards greater reproducibility than the multibreath-hold ECV, although this did not reach selleck inhibitor statistical significance (95% CI -4.9% to 5.4% versus 95% CI -6.4% to 7.3% respectively, p = 0.21).

Conclusions: ECV quantification

by single breath-hold ShMOLLI T1 mapping can measure ECV by EQ-CMR across the spectrum of interstitial expansion. It is procedurally better tolerated, slightly more reproducible and better correlates with histology compared to the older multibreath-hold FLASH techniques.”
“Objective: Older adults with asthma can develop symptoms early in life or during adulthood. Differences between these groups may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Our goal was to identify differences in demographics, control, quality of life and healthcare utilization between those with long-standing asthma (LSA) and late-onset asthma (LOA). Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study of asthma patients over age 65 were analyzed. LSA or LOA was based on age of diagnosis (before or after age 40). Demographic and asthma specific information were analyzed, and allergy prick tests and lung function testing (spirometry and FENO) were performed. Results: After regression analysis, LSA subjects were more likely to demonstrate positive see more prick tests (92 versus 71%,

p = 0.04), with both groups demonstrating higher levels of atopy than previously reported. LSA subjects were also more likely to have received a peak flow meter (p = 0.07). LOA subjects were more likely to have moderate or severe asthma (OR = 3.1, p = 0.05), and had higher FENO readings (p = 0.02). They also had more hospitalizations (p = 0.04), though significance was lost after regression analysis. No differences were noted in demographic information, medical comorbidities,

BIBF 1120 in vivo spirometry, compliance, asthma control, or asthma quality of life between LSA and LOA subjects. Conclusion: LSA subjects are more atopic and more likely to be given a peak flow meter, while LOA subjects have higher FENO levels and more severe asthma. Defining age of asthma onset may help improve treatment recommendations and outcomes for older adults.”
“The conservative management of retained placenta accreta has been proposed as an alternative option in selected cases. Three patients under conservative management of placenta accreta were followed using the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries and the beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin to determine the degree of vascularity between the uterus and the placenta. In this series of cases of conservative management of placenta accreta, the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries showed a better correlation with the uteroplacental circulation than serum beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin.

As developing countries become more advanced, PICU care comes int

As developing countries become more advanced, PICU care comes into reach. The aim of this study was 10 examine MODS in a PICU in China in comparison with Other Countries.

Methods: A retrospective 5-year audit (2001-2006) of MODS cases in a 6-bed PICU in the Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, China.

Results: Of the CH5183284 chemical structure 332 PICU patients, 176 (53%) had MODS the mean age was 35 months, and 60% were <1 year of age. Infectious diseases were the predominant factor underlying MODS (128/176; 73%) with 24% attributable to potentially vaccine preventable infections (14 to Haemophilus influenzae b, 13 to Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 4 to Neisseria meningitidis).

The case fatality rate for MODS was 49% with no difference between infectious Or noninfectious causes (48% vs. 52%; P > 0.05). The frequency of organ dysfunction in MODS was in decreasing order: respiratory (95%). cardiovascular (89%). gastrointestinal (39%), neurologic (35%). hematologic (16%), renal (14%). and hepatic (4%) systems. Mortality rose

with increasing number of organs involved. Gastrointestinal system failure HIF-1 activation was more common in MODS caused by infection than noninfection (145% vs. 23%; P < 0.01) and had a higher mortality (72% vs. 34%; P < 0.001). The case fatality rate for MODS in this study was comparable to rates in other developing countries but higher than in industrialized Countries.

Conclusions: MODS is a major Cause of mortality in PICU patients in China. In China, infection-related MODS PICU cases could potentially be reduced to rates closer to those in industrialized Countries, if conjugated H. influenzae b and conjugated pneumococcal vaccines were introduced into routine practice.”
“Enteropathy Associated T-cell Lymphoma (EATL) is an intestinal tumour of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Based on morphology, immunohistochemistry and genetic profile EATL can

be divided into two groups. EATL type I is a large cell lymphoma which is highly associated with Coeliac Disease (CD) and mostly presents with malabsorption, weight loss and CD-related symptoms. EATL type II consists of small to medium-sized cells and presents often with obstruction or perforation of the small bowel. This type of EATL has no known association with CD.

When EATL has been diagnosed a thorough diagnostic work-up is needed. Compound Library in vivo This work-up preferably includes video capsule enteroscopy (VCE), double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), computed tomography (CT) combined with 18F-fluorocleoxyglocose positron emission tomography scan (18F-FDG-PET scan) if possible and magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE).

Nowadays, most EATL patients are treated with chemotherapy mostly preceded by resection of the tumour and followed by stem cell transplantation. Despite these therapies outcome of EATL remains very poor with a 5-year survival of 8-20%. In order to improve survival prospective multicentre trials, studying new therapies are needed.


Substantial progress in detailing the molecula


Substantial progress in detailing the molecular biology of aldosterone regulation and action should facilitate study of how it exerts detrimental effects in cardiometabolic diseases. However, to date, the clinical

impact of these discoveries has not been validated. Translational efforts are now required to determine if novel therapeutic targets can be developed.”
“I. Oren, I. Avidor, H. Sprecher. Lack of intra-laboratory reproducibility in using Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen.?Transpl Infect Dis 2011. All rights reserved”
“Background: Checking for lower-extremity edema is Compound C mouse important for diagnosing, monitoring, and managing heart failure (HF). However, the characteristics of this sign in the early stages of cardiovascular disease (stage A, as defined by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2001 chronic HF guidelines) have not been selleck products adequately explored.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that stage A HF patients (at risk for HF) are free from leg edema.

Methods: After the exclusion of patients with high

serum creatinine levels (>= 1.2 mg/dL), abnormal electrocardiogram rhythm, and/or comorbid critical disease(s), we studied the prevalence and predictors for leg edema in 274 subjects at risk for heart failure but without structural heart disease or symptoms of HF.

Results: The overall prevalence of lower-extremity edema was 33 of 274 patients

(12.0%; 95% confidence interval: 8.2%-15.9%). In most patients (29/33, 88%), the leg edema involved only the ankle and foot. Compared with patients without leg edema (n = 241), those with leg edema (n = 33) were older (age, 74 +/- 11 7 vs 69 +/- DMH1 purchase 12 years, P = 0.006), more likely to present with pulmonary crackles (52% vs 31%, P < 0.03), and more likely to have varicose veins (55% vs 15%, P < 0.001). Leg edema and varicose veins coexisted in 19 (58%) patients, of whom 16 patients were women. On multivariate analysis, the presence of varicose veins was the only independent predictor of the appearance of bilateral leg edema (odds ratio: 8.18, 95% confidence interval: 3.92-17.1, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: A mild degree of leg edema is not uncommon in patients at risk for HF. Recognition of this phenomenon might be important for evaluation, monitoring, and self-care of HF patients.”
“Purpose of review

To summarize the evidence, now extensive, that efforts to reduce prostate cancer mortality by screening and early detection result in overdiagnosis of disease that is clinically insignificant, and would never have been diagnosed in the patient’s lifetime in the absence of screening. Overdiagnosis may result in overtreatment, which in the case of prostate cancer often carries significant, long-term quality-of-life effects.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles relevant

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles relevant selleck kinase inhibitor to the following hypotheses: (1) clinical signs and tests can reliably differentiate the so-called impingement syndrome from other conditions, (2) clinically common forms of rotator cuff abnormality are caused by contact with the coracoacromial arch, (3) contact between the coracoacromial arch and the rotator cuff does not occur in normal shoulders, (4) spurs seen on the anterior aspect of

the acromion extend beyond the coracoacromial ligament and encroach on the underlying rotator cuff, and (5) successful treatment of the impingement syndrome requires surgical alteration of the acromion and/or coracoacromial arch. Three of the authors independently GS-1101 cost reviewed each article and determined the type of study, the level of evidence, and whether it supported the concept of the impingement syndrome. Articles with level-III or IV evidence were excluded from the final analysis.

Results: These hypotheses were not supported by high levels of evidence.

Conclusions: The concept of impingement syndrome was originally introduced to cover the full range of rotator cuff

disorders, as it was recognized that rotator cuff tendinosis, partial tears, and complete tears could not be reliably differentiated MK-2206 inhibitor by clinical signs alone: The current availability of sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy now enable these conditions to be accurately differentiated. Nonoperative and operative treatments are currently being used for the different rotator cuff abnormalities. Future clinical investigations can now focus on the indications for and the outcome of treatments for the specific rotator cuff diagnoses. It

may be time to replace the nonspecific diagnosis of so-called impingement syndrome by using modern methods to differentiate tendinosis, partial tears, and complete tears of the rotator cuff.”
“The fabrication and structure characterization of ZnO nanorod-TiO2 nanotube hybrid arrays are reported. ZnO nanorods were electrodeposited onto the TiO2 nanotubes to form nanorod-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ZnO nanorods were tightly grown together with TiO2 nanotubes. And the as-prepared ZnO nanorods have single crystal structures, which were grown along the [0001] direction. Both photoluminescence (PL) signals of ZnO nanorods and TiO2 nanotubes were observed in the PL spectrum of hybrid arrays. The observed PL signals of ZnO nanorods with visible broadband emission were induced by structure-dependent defects in ZnO nanorods. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.

05 from baseline and between the groups) Serum sitostanol to cho

05 from baseline and between the groups). Serum sitostanol to cholesterol ratio was increased by staest, but in arterial tissue this ratio was similar in both groups. On staest, lathosterol, campesterol, and sitosterol, and on steest sitosterol and avenasterol correlated significantly between serum and arterial tissue. Cholesterol metabolism, eg. lathosterol/campesterol, suggested that plant sterols were reduced in serum and in arterial tissue during staest.

Conclusion: The novel observations

were that plant stanol ester consumption, in contrast to plant sterols, tended to reduce carotid artery plant sterols in statin-treated patients. Furthermore, despite increased serum sitostanol contents during plant stanol ester consumption, their arterial this website levels were unchanged suggesting that sitostanol is not taken up into the arterial wall. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) might diminish the electromyography signal of the vocalis muscles during intraoperative neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The aim of this study was to compare differential sensitivity of different muscles to succinylcholine in a swine model, and to realize the influence of NMBAs on neuromonitoring. Six male Duroc-Landrace piglets were anesthetized

with thiamylal and underwent tracheal intubation without the use of an NMBA. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve, the spinal accessory nerve, the right phrenic nerve and the brachial plexus were stimulated. Evoked potentials (electromyography signal) of four muscle groups were elicited from needle electrodes

PD173074 supplier before and after intravenous succinylcholine bolus (1.0 mg/kg). Recorded muscles included the vocalis muscles, trapezius muscle, diaphragm and triceps brachii muscles. The onset time and 80% recovery of control response were recorded and analyzed. The testing was repeated after 30 minutes. The onset time of neuromuscular blocking for the vocalis muscles, trapezius muscle, diaphragm and triceps brachii muscle was 36.3+/-6.3 seconds, 38.8+/-14.9 seconds, 52.5+/-9.7 seconds and 45.0+/-8.2 seconds during the first test; and 49.3+/-10.8 seconds, 40.0+/-12.2 seconds, 47.5+/-11.9 seconds and 41.3+/-10.1 seconds during the second test. The 80% recovery of the control response for each muscle was 18.3+/-2.7 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor minutes, 16.5+/-6.9 minutes, 8.1+/-2.5 minutes and 14.8+/-2.9 minutes during the first test; and 21.5+/-3.8 minutes, 12.5+/-4.3 minutes, 10.5+/-3.1 minutes and 16.4+/-4.2 minutes during the second test. The sensitivity of the muscles to succinylcholine, ranked in order, was: the vocalis muscles, the triceps brachii muscle, the trapezius muscle and the diaphragm. We demonstrated a useful and reliable animal model to investigate the effects of NMBAs on intraoperative neuromonitoring. Extrapolation of these data to humans should be done with caution.

“Shigellosis is communicated when the pathogen is swallowe

“Shigellosis is communicated when the pathogen is swallowed down through the factors like stool or polluted hands with dust. Inappropriate hygienic conditions may reach such clinical manifestations. Shigellosis is frequently originated in crowded places and where hygienic conditions are insufficient and sanitation is poor. Infections easily transmissible from person to person like family members or infected playmates. The disease can easily transmit through infected

food handlers with inappropriate hygienic conditions, ML323 cell line crops nurturing in contaminated water with sewage line system, swimming in contaminated pool water. Similarly houseflies can also form an important vector for its transmission. In this study, Ecological factors were also the causative indicators for the disease. The issue was the water 17-AAG supplier contamination of the different areas of Karachi mainly the Pehlwan Goth, Safora Goth. Then another area we focused was Patel Para in which Salmonella species were present. Other indicator was the individual-to-individual transfer that was common in Safora Goth.”
“There is some controversy in the literature if lymph vessels

are enduring sealed during piecemeal CO2 laser surgery of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck or a propagation of tumor cells into the lymphatics occurs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the incidence of lymph node and distant metastases after different methods of resection of a VX2 carcinoma in an animal model. A solid auricular VX2 carcinoma was induced in 200 rabbits. Seven days later, an en bloc cold steel (group A), en bloc laser surgical resection with CO2 laser in continuous wave mode with 2 W (group B), or piecemeal laser surgical resection after transection of the tumor with CO2 laser in continuous wave mode with 2 W (group C) or 20 W (group D) was performed. The animals were killed and the incidence of lymph node and distant metastases Apoptosis Compound Library concentration was compared between

the different groups. Of the rabbits, 21.1 % developed lymph node metastases and 10 % pulmonary metastases. The incidence of lymph node metastases was 17.4 % in group A, 20.4 % in group B, 26 % in group C, and 20 % in group D. These differences were not statistically significant. En bloc cold steel, en bloc laser-, or piecemeal laser surgical resections include similar risk of postoperative metastases. Propagation of tumor cells cannot be excluded with certainty by any of these methods.”
“Aims Bladder compliance is one expression of the pressure and volume relationship as the bladder fills. In addition to passive elements, autonomous micromotional detrusor activity contributes to this relationship. In the mouse cystometric model, compliance pressure contributes to voiding expulsive pressure. During attempts to isolate the detrusor contractile component of this filling pressurization, we found that compliance reversibly diminishes under conditions which remove central control from the micturition cycle.

Edema toxin causes a consistent elevation of cAMP, an important s

Edema toxin causes a consistent elevation of cAMP, an important second messenger the production of which is normally strictly controlled in mammalian cells, whereas lethal toxin cleaves most isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. By disrupting or subverting central modules common GSI-IX to all the principal signaling networks which control immune cell activation, effector function and migration, the anthrax toxins effectively and systematically

dismantle both the innate and the adaptive immune defenses of the host. Here, we review the specific effects of the lethal and edema toxins of B. anthracis on the activation and function of phagocytes, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. We also discuss some open issues which should be addressed to gain a comprehensive insight into the complex relationship that B. anthracis establishes with the host. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive

technique to evaluate liver fibrosis. We compared the performance of TE with liver biopsy (LB) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Patients prospectively underwent TE and LB. The diagnosis accuracy of TE was calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different stages of fibrosis, and optimal cut-off values were defined. A sequential algorithm combining TE with biochemical score (Fibrotest (R)) is proposed. Fifty-seven patients had both TE and LB (median time: 3 days) and two with proven cirrhosis, only TE. Forty-six (78%) were under antiretroviral therapy with anti-HBV drugs in 98%, and 19 GSK2399872A clinical trial (32%) had elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant correlation was observed DAPT cell line between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and METAVIR fibrosis stages (P < 0.0001). Patients with elevated ALT tended to have higher LSM than those with normal ALT. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.85 for

significant fibrosis (>= F2), 0.92 for advanced fibrosis (>= F3) and 0.96 for cirrhosis. Using a cut-off of 5.9 kPa for F >= 2 and 7.6 kPa for F >= 3, the diagnosis accuracy was 83% and 86%, respectively. With an algorithm combining TE and Fibrotest (R), 97% of patients were well classified for significant fibrosis. Using this algorithm, the need for LB can be reduced by 67%. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, most of them with normal ALT under antiretroviral treatment including HBV active drugs, TE was proficient in discriminating moderate to severe fibrosis from minimal liver disease.”
“P>In humans, members of the WNK protein kinase family are osmosensitive regulators of cell volume homeostasis and epithelial ion transport, and mutation of these proteins causes a rare inherited form of hypertension due to increased renal NaCl re-absorption. A related class of kinases was recently discovered in plants, but their functions are largely unknown.

Foam sclerotherapy can be performed easily in an out-patient clin

Foam sclerotherapy can be performed easily in an out-patient clinic setting. This method is an ideal therapy for haemorrhage from varicose veins because it mitigates problematic varicose veins. (C) see more 2011

European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of aldosterone receptor antagonists (spironolactone and eplerenone) as a useful pharmacologic intervention specifically in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and IV heart failure, in patients with an ejection fraction <40% after myocardial infarction, and most recently in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure. However, aldosterone receptor antagonists may be beneficial in a broader patient population. Aldosterone receptor antagonists can potentially serve as an antiarrhythmic pharmacologic agent for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, an anti-ischemic medication in coronary artery disease through prevention of myocardial fibrosis and vascular damage, and as an agent in people with asymptomatic and mild heart failure (NYHA classes I and II) and diastolic heart failure. However, many clinicians remain reluctant to prescribe this highly efficacious pharmacologic therapy

for a variety of reasons, including concerns about polypharmacy and hyperkalemia. Recent observational analysis demonstrates that less than one-third of eligible patients hospitalized with heart failure actually received aldosterone antagonist therapy. This article will review the current and find more AS1842856 potential future uses of aldosterone receptor antagonists across the entire spectrum of cardiovascular disease. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.”
“To determine the survival and subsequent in vitro development of human cleavage stage embryos and hatched blastocysts following varying periods of short-term storage at 4 A degrees C, using tripronucleated human embryos (TPN) as a model.

TPN cleavage embryos and hatched blastocysts short-term stored at

4 A degrees C for 0 h (control), 24 h and 48 h. The main outcome measures were: survival rates (SR) and in vitro developmental ability (blastocyst rate and blastocyst-re-expansion rate) in each of the groups after storage.

Cleavage-stage TPN survived at comparable rates to controls, regardless of storage time (average: 97.3 %). The in vitro development of cleavage-stage TPN stored for 24 h was comparable to that of controls (average 64.7 %), but was significantly impaired when storage lasted 48-h (20.8 %). After artificial shrinkage, SR was comparable in 24-h-stored and non-stored hatched blastocysts (85.7 %; p > 0.05), but was significantly impaired in the 48-h-stored group (20.0 %). Following 24-h storage, the re-expansion rate of hatched blastocysts was similar to that of controls (average: 57.1 %; p > 0.05), but was higher than that of the 48-h-stored group (15.0 %; p < 0.05).