After 60 h in anoxia, external pH was suddenly decreased from 6 5

After 60 h in anoxia, external pH was suddenly decreased from 6.5 to 3.5, but cytoplasmic pH only decreased from 7.35 to 7.2 during the first 2 h and then remained steady for the next 16 h. During the first 3 h at pH 3.5, vacuolar pH decreased from 5.7 to 5.25 and then stabilized. After 18 h at pH 3.5, the initial values of cytoplasmic pH and vacuolar pH were rapidly restored, both upon a return to pH 6.5 while maintaining anoxia and after subsequent return to aerated solution. Summing up, rice coleoptiles

exposed to a combination of anoxia and pH 3.5 retained pH regulation and cellular compartmentation, demonstrating tolerance to anoxia even during the acid load imposed by exposure to pH 3.5.”
“Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes Z-VAD-FMK research buy that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased BAY 73-4506 in vitro susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of “”the first line of defense”": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses

after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells – RBC, haemoglobin concentration – HGB, haematocrit – HCT, total number of white blood cells – WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity – CPK and total protein concentration – TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of

basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effect of nanostructuring on magnetostatic interactions in permanent magnets is investigated by model calculations. Emphasis is on the energy product as a function of packing fraction of the magnetic phase, of the magnet’s macroscopic shape, and of the nanoscale feature size. The main difference between nanostructured and macroscopic magnetic bodies, namely, the transition between coherent and incoherent reversal, has a far-reaching impact on demagnetizing field and energy product. For small magnet sizes, the energy product is substantially enlarged, up to mu(0)M(s)(2)/4 for soft magnetic materials, but this effect is difficult to exploit in real devices. In bulk magnets, the energy product depends on the packing fraction of the soft phase and exhibits a maximum mu(0)M(s)(2)/12 for f=2/3. Nanoscale magnetization processes involve demagnetizing factors different from the macroscopic ones used to determine the optimum shape of permanent magnets.

09-0 31) and cultures (2 0% vs: 15 1%, P < 0 001, OR 0 13, 95

09-0.31) and cultures (2.0% vs: 15.1%, P < 0.001, OR 0.13, 95 %CI 0.07-0.24), than control HCs. Preventing PF-562271 research buy missing results through online viewing accounted for at least 72% of all errors. e-Chasqui users sent on average three electronic error reports per week to the laboratories.

CONCLUSIONS: e-Chasqui reduced

the number of missing laboratory results at point-of-care health centers. Clinical users confirmed viewing electronic results not available on paper. Reporting errors to the laboratory using e-Chasqui promoted continuous quality improvement. The e-Chasqui laboratory information system is an important part of laboratory infrastructure improvements to support multidrug-resistant tuberculosis care in Peru.”
“Aim: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for climacteric symptoms is effective for vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and sweating, but not for various psychological symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, and irritability. In such cases, prescribing Kampo, traditional herbal medicine, is sometimes considered. However, the effectiveness of Kampo has not been clearly shown. We examined the clinical effect of Kami-shoyo-san, a herbal formula commonly prescribed for climacteric symptoms in a Japanese Kampo clinic. Methods: There were 180 patients who initially consulted our Kampo Outpatient Clinic due to the absence of a response

to HRT or unsatisfactory improvement. Out of 180 patients, 45 patients received a Kami-shoyo-san extract for 4 weeks based on patient-centered Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor Kampo diagnosis. We evaluated the severity of climacteric symptoms based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) score before and after 4 weeks of Kami-shoyo-san administration. Furthermore,

the severity of each symptom before treatment was compared between the responders and non-responders. Results: Kami-shoyo-san was effective in 33 (73.3%) of the 45 patients. After treatment, on the whole, the VAS score significantly decreased (P < 0.0001). Concerning vasomotor symptoms and psychological symptoms, each VAS score significantly decreased (P < 0.0001). When comparing the severity of pretreatment symptoms between responders and non-responders, symptoms, such as insomnia, depression, and vertigo were significantly more marked selleck in the responders (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Kami-shoyo-san relieved both vasomotor and psychological symptoms, and especially in patients with marked psychological symptoms, it exhibited potent effects.”
“SETTING: Cross-contamination is not uncommon in mycobacteriology laboratories of high-income countries, as documented by bacterial genotyping. The extent of this problem in low-income countries is largely unknown, where this method is impractical.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of cross-contamination in a high-volume tuberculosis (TB) laboratory in South Africa.

A study of cultivation dynamics of basidiomycete showed a low lev

A study of cultivation dynamics of basidiomycete showed a low level of laccase, peroxidase, and Mn-peroxidase production on glucose-peptone and mineral media. The level of laccase activity in the culture liquid (CL) remained practically unchanged during cultivation in a medium optimized using full factorial experiment as compared to the standard medium. An addition of laccase inducers (syringaldazine, caffeic acid, and synaptic acid) had no effect on the enzyme activity in the culture liquid. Real time PCR showed a lack of reliable difference in the level of laccase gene expression when cultivating the strain under optimal conditions with and

selleck chemicals without copper ions in the medium. The transcription behavior of laccase gene and occurrence of enzyme activity when cultivating T. versicolor 1666 strain testify

to the enzyme constitutive synthesis and the existence of additional regulatory ways in the laccase gene expression.”
“Chronic Vorinostat price sulfur mustard skin lesions (CSMSLs) are the most common complications of sulfur mustard exposure; however, its mechanism is not completely understood. According to clinical signs, there are similarities between CSMSL and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, proteomic results of AD were reviewed and the AD-associated protein-protein interaction network (PIN) was analyzed. According to centrality measurements, 16 proteins were designated as pivotal elements in AD mechanisms. Interestingly, most of these proteins had been reported in some sulfur mustard-related studies in late and acute phases separately. Based on the gene enrichment analysis, aging, cell response to stress, cancer, Toll-and NOD-like receptor and apoptosis signaling pathways have the greatest impact on the disease.

By the analysis of directed protein interaction networks, it is concluded that TNF, IL-6, AKT1, NOS3 and CDKN1A are the most important proteins. It is possible that these proteins play check details role in the shared complications of AD and CSMSL including xerosis and itching.”
“A metabolic complex, Gamair, has been isolated from Bacillus subtilis strain M-22, a producer of a biopreparation for plant protection from diseases of various etiologies. Gamair was shown to possess a broad spectrum of activity against phytopathogenic bacteria (including Pseudomonas corrugata, Erwinia carotovora, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, and Xantomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria), and fungi (Fusarium, Verticullum, Ascochyta, Colletotrichum, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Septoria, and other genera). Using NMR and IR spectroscopy, it was shown that the complex of active compounds is a mixture of the following fractions: Gamair A (close to bacillin), and Gamair B-D (mediocin type hexaene-like) antibiotics.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda All rights reserved “
“Backg

(C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). including erythropoietin and darbepoetin, among patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and anemia have yielded heterogeneous results, and

important safety questions remain unanswered We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to examine the effects selleck chemicals of ESAs in this population

Methods and Results: We systematically searched EM BASE. Medline. the Cochrane Library. ClinicalTrials gov. and relevant bibliographies to identify all relevant RCTs Data were aggregated using random-effects models We identified 9 RCTs (n = 747 patients) Compared with control. ESAs were associated with a significant reduction in CHF-related hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR] = 0 41. 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0 24-0 69) The effect of ESAs on mortality was inconclusive (OR = 0 60, 95% CI = 0 32-1 11) ESAs were associated

with improved quality of life and left ventricular ejection fraction, lower brain-natriuretic peptide levels. and improved exercise tolerance test performance. There was no evidence of an increase in the incidence of adverse events among patients randomized to ESAs (OR = 0 86, 95% Cl = 0 51-1 42).

Conclusions: In patients with CHF and anemia. ESAs LY3039478 in vitro are associated with a decrease in CHF-related hospitalizations and improved quality of life and exercise tolerance However. RCTs completed to date have involved a small number of patients, and available mortality data are inconclusive (J Cardiac Fail 2010,16 649-658)”
“Objective: To investigate the clinical features, management, and prognosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

(AIDS) patients.

Method: 24 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis with accurate pathological diagnosis were retrospectively studied.

Results: 15 male patients and nine female patients were diagnosed at the first affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 1999 to November 2011. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44.2 +/- 11.3 years (range: 24 to 65 years). Among these patients, Fedratinib purchase 13 had other comorbidities. 15 were symptomatic and the other nine were asymptomatic. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, chest tightness, expectoration, and fever. None had concurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The most frequent radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography (CT) scans were solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, and masses or consolidations, and most lesions were located in the lower lobes. All patients had biopsies for the accurate diagnosis. Among the 24 patients, nine patients underwent surgical resections (eight had pneumonectomy via thoracotomy and one had a pneumonectomy via thoracoscopy).

(C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Bronchoscopic

(C) 2009 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction is a new technology designed to reduce hyperinflation in severe

COPD by implantation of endobronchial devices, such as biodegradable material, endobronchial valves or bronchopulmonary stems, via flexible learn more bronchoscopy. This article discusses newest developments and results in bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.”
“Freezing of gait (FOG) is defined as an episodic inability to generate effective stepping in the absence of any known cause, other than parkinsonism or high-level gait disorders. Substantial effort has been made to describe the clinical and kinematic characteristics of patients with FOG. In our review, we highlight the distinctive features of FOG in Parkinson’s

disease (PD) and apply the knowledge of its pathophysiology in PD to other clinical situations and conditions. It is possible that FOG in PD represents the ultimate break in the frontal lobe-basal ganglia-cerebellar-brainstem network that controls gait. Dysrhythmic and discoordinated gait with abnormal scaling of stride length, as well as gait festination, likely is the primary and continuous abnormality of “”the selleck chemical gait network”" in PD, and FOG represents its extreme and complete but transient disruption.”
“The effects of temperature, pH, and various components in HDAC assay a detergent on the activity and stability of a lipase produced by a soda lake fungus strain Fusarium solani N4-2 were studied in a preliminary

evaluation for use in detergent formulation. The molecular mass of the lipase was 31.6 kDa by SDS-PAGE after purification using acetone fractionation and Q-sepharose ion exchange technique. In aqueous solutions, the lipase showed maximal activity at pH 9.0 in a glycine-NaOH buffer at 30 degrees C. At 0 degrees C and 10 degrees C, 52.3% and 82.6% of its maximum activities were detained, respectively. Among the metal ions tested, additions of Cu(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+) and Mn(2+) ions were found to enhance the enzyme activity while Zn(2+), Ba(2+) and Hg(2+) ions showed inhibitory effects. Compared with the commercial lipase Lipolase (R), the enzyme showed better stability towards selected surfactants, commercial detergents, oxidizing agents and proteases. The remarkable resistance capability of the lipase makes it a potential additive for better detergent formulation. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Over the last two decades a favourable course for treated or nontreated brainstem cavernomas has become possible with enhanced diagnostic tools and clinical experience, as well as minimally invasive microsurgical improvements. Currently, brainstem cavernoma can be treated microsurgically with excellent results and an acceptable morbidity rate.


“We have developed a simulation

model for a hetero


“We have developed a simulation

model for a heterojunction crystalline silicon (HJ-c-Si) solar cell with an n-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (nc-3C-SiC:H) emitter and a p-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide back surface field layer. Analyses of experimentally obtained solar-cell performance using the simulation model indicate that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell is limited by the rear-surface recombination velocity (S(r)) and acceptor concentration (N(A)) of the p-type c-Si base region. Simulation results indicate Duvelisib cost that a potential conversion efficiency of HJ-c-Si solar cells using n-type nc-3C-SiC: H emitters is approximately 23% when S(r), N(A), and bulk lifetime of the p-type base are 10 cm/s, 2 x 10(16)

cm(-3), and 1.0 x 10(-3) s, respectively. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3552888]“
“The association between cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and long-term clinical outcomes in heart transplantation has not been evaluated using data from large national databases. We examined the association between CMVIG, with and without antivirals, or antivirals alone, and long-term recipient BKM120 molecular weight and graft survival in heart transplantation using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Recipients transplanted between January 1995 and October 2008, <= 80 yr old, of primary, single-organ heart transplants, recorded as receiving CMVIG with or without antivirals (n = 2112), antivirals without CMVIG (n = 12 089), or no prophylaxis (n = 14 661), at hospital discharge, were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to examine death and graft loss at seven yr post-transplantation;

Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the adjusted risk of graft loss and death for prophylaxis vs. no prophylaxis. CMVIG use (+/- other antivirals) was associated with increased recipient (69% vs. 64%, p < 0.001) and graft (67% vs. 63%, p < 0.001) survival. Antivirals alone also demonstrated increased recipient (68% vs. 64%, p < 0.001) and graft survival (66% vs. 63%, p < 0.001). Cox models demonstrated that CMVIG (+/- other antivirals) was independently associated with decreased risk for death (hazard ratio, HR 0.79, p < 0.001) and graft loss (HR 0.78, p < 0.001) as were antivirals alone (mortality Autophagy inhibitor HR: 0.79, p < 0.001; graft loss: HR 0.78, p < 0.001).”
“Sodium channels are one of the most intensively studied drug targets. Sodium channel inhibitors (e. g., local anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics and analgesics) exert their effect by stabilizing an inactivated conformation of the channels. Besides the fast-inactivated conformation, sodium channels have several distinct slow-inactivated conformational states. Stabilization of a slow-inactivated state has been proposed to be advantageous for certain therapeutic applications. Special voltage protocols are used to evoke slow inactivation of sodium channels.

Conclusion: The proficiency testing programme is designed as a co

Conclusion: The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results – and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared Oligomycin A chemical structure with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor quality reference standards. By providing anti-malarial drug standards from a central point, it is possible to lower the cost of these standards.”
“Minilaparotomic

access in spinal anaesthesia represents an example of mininvasive surgery and could be a valid cost-benefit

alternative in the surgical treatment of benign gynaecologic diseases.

The study is a randomized study. We analyzed a consecutive series of 80 patients treated for benign gynaecological diseases with spinal (group A) or with general anaesthesia (group B).

The median length of incision was 5 cm. The average operating time was 40.5 +/- A 9.39 min, without differences between groups. The average hospital stay was 0.71 days shorter (p a parts per thousand currency sign 0.0001) and the postoperative pain was lower at 2 and 6 h from the surgery and at 10 p.m. in the group A (p a parts per thousand currency sign selleck compound 0.0001).

Minilaparotomy in spinal anaesthesia carries advantages

from economic point of view with reduction of length of stay in hospital which is an important parameter for the evaluation of the quality of surgical treatments.”
“The association between the immune system and malignancy is at the selleck forefront of research aimed at identifying and developing effective immunotherapies to treat and suppress cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the biology, differentiation and effector functions of key immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is central to this process. The stimulation of T cells results in their activation, triggering the release of cellular mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. The interplay between these components determines the polarization of T cells into phenotypically-, functionally- and transcriptionally-distinct subsets (e.g. T-helper [Th] 1, Th2, Th17 and T-regulatory cells). Given that antigen recognition, costimulation and the cytokine milieu are critical signals in T-cell activation and differentiation, they represent potential and important therapeutic targets for modulating immune responses in disease. The aim of this article is to review the role of T cells in immune protection and pathogenesis, and to discuss the key pathways involved in these processes.”
“Background: Childhood chronic disease may affect patients’ and their family’s functioning.

047); adult individuals with genotype CT showed higher cannon cir

047); adult individuals with genotype CT showed higher cannon circumference than those with genotype CC. Another significant association of genotypes with five-year-old fiber length was found in Inner Mongolia white cashmere goats (P = 0.002). In addition, individuals with genotype CT had longer fiber length than those with genotype CC. The data revealed that the Six6 gene positively affects growth traits and cashmere traits. Polymorphism of Six6-PstI could be useful as a DNA marker for goat breeding and genetics via marker-assisted selection.”
“We present a postproduction method of electrical

check details annealing (E-annealing) to improve the performance of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) find more having conductive polymer anodes on a polyethersulfone substrate. The polymer that was used for the anodes was dimethylsulfoxide-doped

poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate). It was found that E-annealing of the fabricated FOLEDs can reduce the turn-on voltage and enhance the brightness with reduced flowing current, thereby enhancing the device efficiency. With the E-annealing method, we have successfully demonstrated efficient solution-processed green FOLEDs, which show a peak luminescence of 6 100 cd/m(2) and a maximum current efficiency of 16.4 cd/A. An ion migration model to explain the phenomena related to the improvement of FOLEDs is also proposed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3499286]“
“The evolutionary dynamics of HIV during the chronic phase of infection is driven by the host immune response and by selective pressures exerted this website through drug treatment. To understand and model the evolution of HIV quantitatively, the parameters governing genetic diversification and the strength of selection need to

be known. While mutation rates can be measured in single replication cycles, the relevant effective recombination rate depends on the probability of coinfection of a cell with more than one virus and can only be inferred from population data. However, most population genetic estimators for recombination rates assume absence of selection and are hence of limited applicability to HIV, since positive and purifying selection are important in HIV evolution. Yet, little is known about the distribution of selection differentials between individual viruses and the impact of single polymorphisms on viral fitness. Here, we estimate the rate of recombination and the distribution of selection coefficients from time series sequence data tracking the evolution of HIV within single patients. By examining temporal changes in the genetic composition of the population, we estimate the effective recombination to be rho = 1.4 +/- 0.6×10(-5) recombinations per site and generation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the selection coefficients of at least 15% of the observed non-synonymous polymorphisms exceed 0.8% per generation.


“An implementation system of three-dimensional endoscopic


“An implementation system of three-dimensional endoscopic photoacoustic imaging is presented. The developed endoscopic photoacoustic detector integrates a multielement linear transducer array, a reflective device, a Plexiglass tube, and ultrasonic coupling medium. To match with the acoustic impendence of Plexiglass this website tube, a glycerin solution with 45% volume percentage was used as the ultrasonic coupling medium. This ultrasonic coupling medium can decrease photoacoustic pressure transmission loss

during the progress of photoacoustic signal propagation. The capability of the system for three-dimensional imaging was verified with chicken breast tissue. Furthermore, pig normal rectal tissue and mouse breast tumor tissue in an ex vivo cavity model were imaged by the system. The reconstructed three-dimensional photoacoustic image presented the structural information of normal and lesion tissue. The experimental results demonstrate the multielement-based endoscopic photoacoustic imaging system with inside-out laser exciting mode has the ability of reconstructing three-dimensional images of biology tissue. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3626789]“
“Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) vulcanized poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)-polyaniline

dodecylbenzenesulfonate [NBR-PAni.DBSA] blends were click here successfully prepared by using the practical thermomechanical mixing method. The effect of alignment of PAni.DBSA particles on the mechanical and electrical properties of vulcanized blends was studied (by passing the blends through a two roll-mills). All vulcanized blends strained parallel to the selleck products flow direction when passed through the two roll-mills had their electrical conductivities enhanced with increasing strain in tension. Good historical memory in term of the electrical conductivities during three cycles of straining (with 300 times of strain loading and

unloading motion for each cycle) was observed for all vulcanized blends (99% retention of original value before straining). These vulcanized blends also showed better mechanical properties (i.e., higher tensile strength and tear strength) than the ones strained perpendicularly to the flow direction. With the ideal mechanical properties and reversible electrical behavior, this type of blend can potentially emerge as a new class of flexible smart material. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Predictive understanding of cell signaling network operation based on general prior knowledge but consistent with empirical data in a specific environmental context is a current challenge in computational biology. Recent work has demonstrated that Boolean logic can be used to create context-specific network models by training proteomic pathway maps to dedicated biochemical data; however, the Boolean formalism is restricted to characterizing protein species as either fully active or inactive.

The association of vaspin with the lipid parameters, gender, and

The association of vaspin with the lipid parameters, gender, and the severity of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis in the patient group was evaluated. Stenotic plaques in ICA were classified as normal, mild (stenosis under 50%), moderate (stenosis 50%-69%), severe (stenosis 70%-99% to preocclusion), and occlusion. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between 2 groups in terms of age and gender (P > .05). Vaspin levels were found to be significantly

higher in the patient group (164.73 +/- 153.76 buy PD173074 ng/mL) compared with the control group (116.21 +/- 34.60 ng/mL) (P < .05). However, no relation was established between vaspin level and the severity of ICA stenosis. Conclusions: Vaspin levels have been shown to increase in acute ischemic stroke patients. The increased vaspin levels may vary depending on several factors in acute period of ischemic stroke.”
“By the condensation of substituted aldehydes of vanillin series with 1,3-propanediol in boiling benzene in the presence of sulfo cation exchanger FIBAN K-1 as catalyst functionally 2-R-substituted 1,3-dioxanes were synthesized.”
“Aims To develop a rat model of atherosclerosis-induced chronic bladder ischemia and investigate the effect of chronic bladder ischemia on voiding behavior and bladder

function. Methods: Adult male rats Prexasertib were divided into three groups. The arterial injury (AI) group underwent endothelial injury of the iliac arteries and received a 2% cholesterol diet. The sham group underwent sham operation and received a 2% cholesterol diet. The control group received a regular diet. After 8 weeks, a metabolic cage study and GW4869 cystometry were performed without anesthesia. Bladder blood flow was measured using a laser Doppler blood flowmeter. Histological examination of the iliac arteries and the bladder was performed. The bladder was also processed for immunohistochemical staining of oxidative stress markers. Results: The metabolic

cage study showed that in the AI group, voiding frequency significantly increased while voided volume significantly decreased. Cystometry showed that the frequency of reflex bladder contractions was significantly higher in the AI group. Filling- induced decrease in bladder blood flow was the greatest in the AI group. Histological study showed that in the AI group alone, atherosclerotic occlusion occurred in the iliac arteries as well as in the downstream bladder microvessels. Oxidative stress marker positive cells were more prevalent in the AI bladder than in the other bladders. Conclusions: Combined with a high- cholesterol diet, endothelial injury of iliac arteries induced arterial occlusive disease in the downstream vessels and consequent bladder ischemia in rats. This model of chronic bladder ischemia showed detrusor overactivity manifested as an increase in voiding frequency. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31: 195-200, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.