The fifteen genes, for which no transcripts were detected,

The fifteen genes, for which no transcripts were detected,

were mainly located within efaB5 and phage04. A constraint of the comparative genomic analyses presented here, is that the comparison of gene content is based on a single reference strain only (V583). To compensate, we conducted a CC2 pangenome analysis with the draft genomes of CC2-strains HH22 and TX0104 to identify putative CC2-enriched non-V583 genes. Alvocidib clinical trial The pangenome analysis identified a total of 298 non-V583 ORFs in the HH22 and TX0104 (Additional file 4). Among these ORFs, one gene cluster was identified as particularly interesting (Fisher’s exact; Additional file 4 and Figure 2). Notably, HMPREF0348_0426 in TX0104 represented the best BLAST hit for all the three ORFs HMPREF0364_1864 to -66 in HH22, suggesting discrepancy in annotation between the two strains. Sequencing across the gap between contig 00034 and contig 00035 in TX0104 confirmed that HMPREF0348_0427

and HMPREF0348_0428 represent the two respective ends of a gene homologous to HMPREF0346_1863 in HH22. (Additional file 5). The presence of the putative non-V583 CC2-enriched gene cluster among E. INCB018424 nmr faecalis was further elucidated by PCR in our collection of strains (Additional file 3). Strains were screened for the presence of three individual genes (HMPREF0346_1861, HMPREF0346_1864 and HMPREF0346_1868) and the entire element, with primers hmpref0346_1868-F and hmpref0346_1861-R. Fisher’s exact testing (q < 0.01) on the basis of the PCR data confirmed that the gene cluster was significantly enriched among CC2. Comparative sequence analysis of the flanking regions suggests Celastrol that the gene cluster is located in the

HH22 and TX0104 versions of the E. faecalis pathogenicity island [36]. Recently, a microarray-based assessment of PAI-content in a set of clinical E. faecalis isolates revealed high degree of variation within the island, and an evidently modular evolution of the PAI [37], which would be consistent with acquisition by an indel event of this locus in the PAI of TX0104, HH22 and other positive CC2-strains. Figure 2 Schematic representation of a putative non-V583 CC2-enriched gene cluster, as annotated in the Enterococcus faecalis HH22 and TX0104 draft genomes (GenBank accession numbers ACIX00000000 and ACGL00000000 , respectively). The EF-numbers of flanking genes indicate the insert site location compared to the E. faecalis V583 pathogenicity island. CC2-enriched surface-related structures Lepage et al. [38] have previously identified eight genes as potential markers for the V583/MMH594-lineage, of which all except one gene (EF2513) are found among the CC2-enriched genes in this study. Interestingly, several of these genes were later assigned to a recently classified family of surface proteins, with a C-terminal WxL domain, proposed to form multi-component complexes on the cell surface [39, 40]. Siezen et al.

​ch3 CrossRef Turconi S, Weber N, Schweitzer G, Strotmann H, Holz

​ch3 CrossRef Turconi S, Weber N, Schweitzer G, Strotmann H, Holzwarth AR (1994) Energy transfer and charge separation kinetics in photosystem I. 2. Picosecond fluorescence study of various PS I particles and light-harvesting complex isolated from higher plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1187:324–334. doi:10.​1016/​S0006-3495(93)81552-2 CrossRef van Metter RL (1977) Excitation energy transfer in the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b selleck chemical protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 462:642–658. doi:10.​1016/​0005-2728(77)90107-4 CrossRefPubMed van Oort B, Amunts A, Borst JW, van Hoek A, Nelson N, van Amerongen H, Croce R (2008) Picosecond fluorescence

of intact and dissolved PSI-LHCI crystals. Biophys J 95:5851–5861. doi:10.​1529/​biophysj.​108.​140467 CrossRefPubMed van Oort B, Alberts M, de Bianchi S, Dall’Osto L, Bassi R, Trinkunas G, Croce R, van Amerongen H (2010) Effect of antenna-depletion in photosystem II on excitation energy transfer in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biophys J 98:922–931. doi:10.​1016/​j.​bpj.​2009.​11.​012 Selleck C646 CrossRefPubMed Vasile’v S, Wiebe S, Bruce D (1998) Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in photosynthesis. 5-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in spinach thylakoids as a model for antenna based quenching mechanisms. Biochim Biophys Acta 1363:147–156. doi:10.​1016/​S0005-2728(97)00096-0 CrossRef Visser NV, Westphal AH, van Hoek A, van Mierlo CPM, Visser AJWG, van Amerongen H (2008) Tryptophan-tryptophan energy migration

as a tool to follow apoflavodoxin folding.

Biophys J 95:2462–2469. doi:10.​1529/​biophysj.​108.​132001 CrossRefPubMed Williams WP (1998) The physical properties of thylakoid membrane lipids and their relation to photosynthesis. In: Siegenthaler PA, Murata N (eds) Advances in photosynthesis. Lipids in photosynthesis. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 103–118 Witt HT (1979) Energy conversion in the functional membrane of photosynthesis. Analysis by light pulse and electric pulse methods. The central role of the electric field. Biochim Biophys Acta 505:355–427. doi:10.​1016/​0304-4173(79)90008-9 PubMed Yan H, Zhang P, Wang C, Liu ZH, Chang W (2007) Two lutein molecules in LHCII have different Bay 11-7085 conformations and functions: insights into the molecular mechanism of thermal dissipation in plants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 355:457–463. doi:10.​1016/​j.​bbrc.​2007.​01.​172 CrossRefPubMed”
“Alex Hope was for many years a Foundation Professor of Biology in Biophysics and later LY2835219 manufacturer Emeritus Professor at The Flinders University of South Australia. Throughout his career he strove to understand the energetics of plant cells, and devoted the latter two-thirds of his research career to the study of photosynthesis. His earlier, highly successful, research had focused on electrical properties and ionic relations of plant cells. The change of research direction, however, was only an apparent one, since a continuing theme was the role of electrochemical potential gradients in energy capture and conversion.

Sugar Tech 8:30–35CrossRef Harman GE, Kubicek CP (eds) (1998) Tri

Sugar Tech 8:30–35CrossRef Harman GE, Kubicek CP (eds) (1998) Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Vol. 2. Enzymes, biological

control and commercial applications. Francis & Taylor, London Hatvani L, Antal Z, Manczinger L, Szekeres A, Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP, Nagy A, Nagy E, Vágvölgyi C, Kredics L (2007) Green mold diseases of Agaricus and Pleurotus spp. are caused by related but phylogenetically different Trichoderma species. Phytopathology 97:532–537PubMedCrossRef Hoyos-Carvajal L, Orduz S, Bissett J (2009) Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions. Fung Genet Biol 46:61–631CrossRef Jaklitsch WM (2009) European JNJ-64619178 clinical trial species of Hypocrea. Part I. The green-spored species. Stud Mycol 63:1–91PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM (2011) European species of Hypocrea part II: species with hyaline ascospores. Fungal Divers 48:1–250PubMedCrossRef Jaklitsch WM, Samuels GJ, Dodd SL, Lu B-S, Druzhinina IS (2006) Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia. Stud Mycol 56:137–177CrossRef Kredics L, Antal Z, Dóczi I, Manczinger L, Kevei F, Nagy E (2003) Clinical EPZ015938 purchase importance of the genus

Trichoderma. A review. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 50:105–117PubMedCrossRef Avapritinib in vivo Kubicek C, Bölzlbauer UM, Kovacs W, Mach RL, Kuhls K, Lieckfeldt E, Börner T, Samuels GJ (1996) Cellulase production by species of Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum and of Hypocrea species with anamorphs referable to Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum. Fung Genet Biol 20:105–114CrossRef Kubicek CP, Mikus M, Schuster A, Schmoll

M, Seiboth B (2009) Metabolic engineering strategies for the improvement of cellulase production by Hypocrea jecorina. Biotechnol Biofuels 2:19PubMedCrossRef Kuhls K, Lieckfeldt E, Samuels GJ, Kovacs W, Meyer W, Petrini O, Gams W, Börner T, Kubicek CP (1996) Molecular evidence that the asexual industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei is a clonal derivative of the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:7755–7760PubMedCrossRef Kuhls K, Lieckfeldt E, Samuels GJ, Börner T, Meyer W, Kubicek CP (1997) Revision of Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum including related teleomorphs based on analysis of ribosomal Oxalosuccinic acid DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Mycologia 89:442–460CrossRef Kuhls K, Lieckfeldt E, Börner T, Guého E (1999) Molecular reidentification of human pathogenic Trichoderma isolates as Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Trichoderma citrinoviride. Med Mycol 37:25–33PubMed Kullnig CM, Szakacs G, Kubicek CP (2000) Molecular identification of Trichoderma species from Russia, Siberia and the Himalaya. Mycol Res 104:1117–1125CrossRef Lieckfeldt E, Kullnig C, Samuels GJ, Kubicek CP (2000) Sexually competent sucrose- and nitrate-assimilating strains of Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) from South American soils.

At the same time, the layer-to-layer

At the same time, the layer-to-layer distance of the graphene-Ag composite films has also been changed from 1.20 to 1.61 nm, indicating that some of the oxygen functional groups have been reduced. As shown, the graphene-Ag composite films have a shorter distance from 1.20 to 1.34 nm than the graphene films from 1.56 to 1.61 nm, suggesting that AgNO3 is beneficial to the reduction process and the suitable amount Selleck LY3009104 of AgNO3 is 10 mg. KU-60019 Figure 6 XRD patterns of graphite, graphene oxide, and graphene-Ag composite films. (a) Graphene oxide films, (b to d)

graphene films (reduced by ascorbic acid), (e to i) graphene-Ag composite films (the amount of AgNO3 was from 2 to 300 mg in each film), and (j) graphite. The Raman scattering signals were measured on the graphite powder (Figure 7 (a)), graphene oxide films (Figure 7 (b)), the graphene films (Figure 7 (c to e)), and the graphene-Ag composite films (Figure 7 (f to j)). The Raman spectra exhibit two main characteristic peaks, the D band (approximately 1,345 cm−1) and G band (approximately 1,590 cm−1). The G

band represents the plane vibrations with E 2g symmetry and is mainly sensitive to the configuration of sp 2 sites, while the D band is related to the breathing mode of κ-point phonon of A 1g symmetry. selleckchem As the graphite was oxidized into graphene oxide, the G band is broadened and the D band increases substantially, indicating the decrease in size of the in-plane sp 2 sites, possibly because of the extensive oxidation and ultrasonic exfoliation [41]. When graphene oxide is reduced by ascorbic acid

for 5 h, the increase of the I D/I G intensity ratio of graphene is observed compared to that of Ergoloid the graphene oxide. Finally, when AgNO3 was used, the increase of D band also occurred. This change suggests an increase in the average size of the sp 2 sites upon reduction of graphene oxide, which indicates that the reduction reaction has taken place and agrees well with the Raman spectrum of the graphene oxide reduced by hydrazine as reported by Stankovich et al. [42]. Figure 7 Raman spectra of graphite, graphene oxide, and graphene-Ag composite films. (a) Graphite, (b) graphene oxide film, (c to e) graphene films (reduced by ascorbic acid), and (f to j) graphene-Ag composite films (the amount of AgNO3 was from 2 to 300 mg in each film). FTIR is used to characterize the functional groups in the films shown in Figure 8. When the pristine graphite powder (sample j) is oxidized, many functional groups can be introduced in the graphene oxide films (sample a), which have a peak at approximately 3,410 cm−1 arising from the -OH stretching vibrations and peak at approximately 1,730 cm−1 of carboxyl C=O, approximately 1,620 cm−1 of C-C groups, approximately 1,400 cm−1 of O-H, and 1,100 cm−1 of alkoxy C-O.

Figure 3 Neutrophil recruitment inhibits the conidial germination

Figure 3 Neutrophil recruitment inhibits the conidial germination in alveolar macrophages-depleted mice one day after infection. (A): Alveolar macrophage and neutrophil populations were JPH203 price counted in BAL fluids one day after infection of mice treated with the liposome control and clodrolip. N = 5 mice per group. One of three independent experiments is shown. * denotes a p-value < 0.05. (B): Light emission in BAL-fluids one day after infection of mice treated

with liposome control (upper cell well), clodrolip (middle cell well) and cortisone acetate (lower cell well). BAL cells were collected by cytospin centrifugation using labtek chamber slides. D-luciferin was incorporated to the medium and luminescence acquired after 10 min with the IVIS 100 system. The graph shows the total luminescence evaluated Selleckchem Combretastatin A4 by using the living image software 3.1. Furthermore, we performed an evaluation buy SAHA HDAC of the luminescence in the BAL one day after infection, comparing clodrolip versus liposomes (control) or cortisone acetate treated mice. Cortisone acetate was used as a positive control for fungal germination within the lung tissue, because we previously showed that cortisone acetate

inhibits the killing capacity of AM and resulted in the germination of conidia even one day after infection [20, 21]. Mice treated with clodrolip had a fourfold lower BAL luminescence signal than cortisone actetate-treated mice (102000 ± 37000 versus 394000 ± 19500 photons flux) (Figure 3B), consistent with the finding that preserved airway neutrophil recruitment under these conditions can inhibit the conidial germination. However, although not significantly different, the signal in the BAL from clodrolip treated mice was higher than that of liposome treated control mice (102000 ± 37000 versus 66300 ± 19500). Nevertheless, germination and

mycelium formation was inhibited in AM-depleted mice as confirmed by lung histopathology analyses performed one and eight days post infection (see below). Neutrophils may act as the first line of defense against conidia One day post-infection, the lungs of clodrolip-treated mice contained multifocal lesions (Figure 4A) characterised by scattered hemorrhagic foci associated with small (surface < 200 μm2) perivascular, Resminostat peribronchiolar, or intra-bronchiolar/alveolar inflammatory infiltrates (Figure 4B). At this stage, few macrophages were detected, which implies that alveolar macrophage depletion was not compensated by massive monocyte recruitment at day one after infection. The cellular infiltrates contained mostly karyorrhectic (i.e. fragmented) neutrophils (Figure 4C, E), embedded in a necrotic material associated with extravasated erythrocytes. Clusters of non-germinated conidia were observed in the neutrophilic infiltrates (Figure 4D, F). Figure 4 At the early stage of pulmonary colonisation, neutrophil influx limits fungal germination after clodrolip treatment.

CrossRefPubMed 19 Yasuoka H, Nakamura Y, Zuo H, Tang W, Takamura

CrossRefPubMed 19. Yasuoka H, Nakamura Y, Zuo H, Tang W, Takamura Y, Miyauchi A, Nakamura M, Mori I,

Kakudo K: VEGF-D expression and lymph vessels play an important role for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2005, 18: 1127–1133.CrossRefPubMed 20. Karkkainen MJ, Petrova TV: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Oncogene 2000, 19: 5598–5605.CrossRefPubMed Conflicting interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions Hao Yu carried out study design, literature selleck research, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis and manuscript preparation. Shiqian Zhang was the guarantor of integrity of the entire study. Renhua Zhang and Linlin Zhang participated in literature research, data analysis and manuscript editing. All authors read

and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide [1]. The prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC remains poor despite increased understanding of the disease and therapeutic advances, heightening the need for new therapeutic approaches. Modern therapeutic strategies have achieved 1-year survival rates of up to 50% [2]. A combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with third generation agents, such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinorelbine, represents the standard of care for fit patients with advanced disease [3–5]. However, appreciable clinical Lenvatinib ic50 response to chemotherapy is achieved in only 30–40% of patients, probably because of relatively higher chemoresistance intrinsic to NSCLC. The mechanism of this resistance is not well understood. Resistance does not appear to correlate with MDR1 gene expression

[6], but several reports have linked NSCLC chemoresistance to mutations in TP53 and/or overexpression of HER2. The therapeutic efficacy of anticancer agents is strongly dependent on the ability of the drugs to trigger apoptosis in target tumor cells [7]. Because further advances in chemotherapy are likely to be limited, the key to improving outcomes for NSCLC patients may turn on targeted therapeutic strategies. In particular, agents that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) may not have a major impact on the treatment of advanced NSCLC [8, 9]. The HER2/neu oncogene, a probable prognostic indicator in lung cancer patients, is a member of the EGFR family. Also known as c-erbB-2, HER2 is encoded by a gene located in the chromosomal region 17q11.2–q12, and encodes a transmembrane receptor-type tyrosine-protein kinase [10]. Dimerization of HER2/neu with an activated EGFR molecule activates a signal Fosbretabulin molecular weight transduction cascade that leads to an increase in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastatic potential, and a decrease in apoptosis.

g slippers)?”;

g. slippers)?”; LY2606368 “Do you perform other unsafe activities?” With regard to nursing care facilities, a narrative review concluded that multifactorial intervention programmes have the potential to prevent falls [140]. Unfortunately, the two most recent meta-analyses could not confirm this assumption. Overall, both meta-analyses could not find a significant reduction in the rate of falls or risk of falling [110, 141]. However, post hoc subgroup analyses in the Cochrane review showed a significant decrease in the rate of falls (RR = 0.60;

95% CI, 0.51–0.72) and risk of falling (RR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77–0.95) when multifactorial interventions (that included exercises) where provided by a multidisciplinary Erastin clinical trial team; and this in contrast with multifactorial interventions initiated by single health professionals which did not reduce the rate of falls (RR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.90–1.37)

or risk of falling (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94–1.23) [110]. Importantly, a subgroup analysis of a limited number of multifactorial interventions provided by a multidisciplinary team and reporting data on proximal femoral fractures, showed a significant reduction in the risk of these fractures (RR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24–0.98). In contrast with the established evidence for effective exercise programmes in the community setting, results of the meta-analyses relating to exercise prevention programmes as a single intervention in nursing care facilities are inconsistent [110]. In fact, attention should Interleukin-3 receptor be paid when applying TPCA-1 datasheet exercises to frail nursing home residents, as frail residents might be less likely to benefit from exercises, and exercises may paradoxically increase the risk of falls and injuries in this vulnerable population

[110, 142]. In a hospital setting, there is preliminary evidence for effective falls prevention programmes, in general, with no evidence however in the “acute” hospital setting. For instance, in our own meta-analyses, including only high-quality studies, we could not show an effect on number of falls (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.65–1.03) or number of fallers (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.70–1.08) [111]. Another meta-analysis, with broader inclusion criteria than ours, showed only a minor effect on the number of falls (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68–0.99), but again not on the number of fallers (RR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71–1.27) [37].

Further, Candida albicans is seen as a reservoir for pneumonia [4

Further, Candida albicans is seen as a reservoir for pneumonia [48] and intestinal related diseases [49]. Theraud et al. [50] showed Crenigacestat order that chlorhexidine

was fungicidal on pure cultures, yeast mixtures, and biofilms above a concentration level of 0.5% (w/w). However, Pitten et al. [51] showed that treatment with a 0.3% (w/w) chlorhexidine-based product did not provide a clinical benefit for cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. In their study, the risk of mucositis and clinical sequelae (e.g., C-reactive protein) seemed to be enhanced by chlorhexidine mouth rinse, VX-689 in vitro although the counts of microorganisms on the oral mucous membranes were significantly reduced. They assumed that the reason was the reduced tissue tolerance to chlorhexidine. This assumption is supported by a study that showed a discrepancy between antiseptic activity NVP-AUY922 supplier and clinical effect on radiation-induced [52] or chemo-induced mucositis [53] by chlorhexidine mouth rinse compared with placebo. In a

peritoneal explant test for evaluating tissue tolerance, chlorhexidine showed the highest cytotoxicity in comparison to an essential oil and an amine/stannous fluoride mouth rinse [54]. Thus, it could be interesting to increase host innate defence systems, such as the lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide system, which have no or low effectiveness at the physiological level, by increasing their level of concentration instead

of using common antiseptics. Conclusion In summary, in the quantitative suspension test, the SCN- and H2O2 mixture above normal physiological saliva levels showed little or no antimicrobial effect within 15 min. However, by adding lactoperoxidase enzyme, the tested mixtures became not only an effective bactericidal (Streptococcus mutans and sanguinis) but also a fungicidal (Candida albicans) agent. Thus, all three components of the LPO-system are needed for its microbicidal effect. Subsequent studies should consider loading tests with human saliva and different concentrations of all three components. Methods The study was performed based PAK6 on the European norms (EN) 1040 and EN 1275. A 9.9-ml test solution (with and without LPO) was mixed with a 0.1-ml bacteria or fungus suspension (overnight culture) and stored at 37°C. After 1, 3, 5, and 15 min contact time, the test mixture was again well mixed (vortexed), and 1 ml was transferred into 9 ml of neutralizer (polysorbate 80 30 g/L, lecithin 3 g/L, L-histidine 1 g/L, sodium thiosulfate 5 g/L, aqua bidestillata ad 1000 mL). The neutralizer was tested in a prestudy according to the recommended neutralization test of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM). After 5 min of neutralization time, 1.0 ml of the neutralized test suspension was mixed with 9.0 ml of dilution solution, and 0.

Science 200:1506–1513PubMedCrossRef 52 Trussell J (1980) Statist

Science 200:1506–1513PubMedCrossRef 52. Trussell J (1980) Statistical flaws in evidence for the Frisch hypothesis that fatness triggers menarche.

Hum Biol 52:711–720PubMed 53. Garn SM, LaVelle M, Rosenberg KR, Hawthorne VM (1986) Maturational timing as a factor in female fatness and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 43:879–883PubMed 54. Bronson FH, Manning JM (1991) The energetic regulation of ovulation: a realistic role for body fat. Biol Reprod 44:945–950PubMedCrossRef 55. de Ridder CM, Thijssen JH, Bruning PF, Van den Brande JL, Zonderland ML, Erich WB (1992) Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and pubertal development: a longitudinal study of physical and hormonal sexual maturation of girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:442–446PubMedCrossRef 56. Beunen GP, Malina RM, Lefevre JA, Claessens AL, Renson R, Vanreusel B (1994) Adiposity and biological maturity in girls 6–16 years Cobimetinib order BIBF1120 of age. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18:542–546PubMed 57. Frisch RE, Revelle R (1971) Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of menarche. Arch Dis Child 46:695–701PubMedCrossRef 58. Zacharias L, Wurtman RJ (1969) Age at menarche. genetic and environmental influences. N Engl J Med 280:868–875PubMedCrossRef 59. Fischbein S (1977) Intra-pair similarity in

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Ultrabasic forest is the most species rich forest type for trees but this forest type has lower bird and

bat species richness compared to lowland dipterocarp forest and montane forest. Bird and bat species richness are much stronger correlated across the four forest types. Our results on ambiguous cross-taxon congruence in species richness at finer levels of spatial scales add DZNeP clinical trial to the reservation on this issue in other studies (Prendergast et al. 1993; Lawton et al. 1998; Part and Soderstrom 1999; Ricketts et al. 1999; Heino 2010) although Mac Nally et al. (2002) found strong similarities in the diversity of birds, mammals and trees in one hectare blocks in Australia. Species richness congruence between species groups is likely to be linked through functional relationships, for example by trophic interactions or ecological similarity (Negi and Gadgil 2002; Rodrigues and Brooks 2007) or structural complexity (Kissling et al. 2008). Lowland dipterocarp forest, with its high canopy, complex structure and food resources for other taxa has the highest species richness of birds

and bats. Ultrabasic forest in our study is idiosyncratic in its high tree species richness. The extreme richness of ultrabasic forest in the NSMNP in tree species is further PU-H71 supported by the findings of Progesterone Co et al. (2004) who identified 335 tree species in a 16 ha plot in lowland dipterocarp forest in the NSMNP compared to the 409 tree species found in the total of two ha in our study in ultrabasic forest. Little is known about

ultrabasic forests in the tropical Far East where some are very species poor and some exceptionally rich in plant species (Proctor 2003). Forest on ultrabasic soils in the Northern Sierra Madre clearly belongs to the latter category. The low bird species richness in ultrabasic forest in the NSMNP that we found is in concordance with avifaunal diversity studies in this forest type on other Southeast Asian islands (e.g. Poulsen and Lambert 2000) although ultrabasic forest on Borneo has several habitat specialist birds (Sheldon et al. 2009). The decrease in tree species richness with elevation that we found in the NSMNP, and a floristic FG-4592 mouse ecotone at about 800 m where dipterocarp dominated forest is replaced by oak-laurel forest, has been well described on wet tropical mountain areas (e.g. Ashton 2003). The lower bird species richness in montane forest in the NSMNP compared to lowland dipterocarp forest reflects the general higher species richness of Philippine birds at lower elevations: 61% of resident species are restricted to lowlands, 15% to montane areas over 1,000 m and the remainder of 24% occurs al all elevations (Kennedy et al. 2000).