Indeed, the realization that one spermatozoan cell and one ovum n

Indeed, the realization that one spermatozoan cell and one ovum normally must unite to initiate embryonic development was one aspect of an emerging cell theory that had just begun to crystallize in the mid-1800s as a key adjunct to Mendel’s (1865) revolutionary discoveries about hereditary transmission. Darwin could not have presaged that the emergence of anisogamy (the disparity in size and mobility between male and female gametes) early in the history of multicellular life would later become appreciated as one of the ‘major transitions in evolution’ (Maynard Smith & Szathmáry, 1995). Indeed, anisogamy is now seen not only as

the universal basis for defining maleness and femaleness in nearly every sexual species, but also as being the ultimate root of many evolutionary ‘battles between the sexes’ over optimal reproductive tactics by males find more versus females. Given the social climate of the mid-1800s, coupled with the paucity of information about the genetic bases of sex and sexuality, it is little wonder that Darwin declined to speculate unduly about the diverse sexual modes and alternative mating lifestyles of animals.

In Darwin’s era and throughout the following century (well into the 1970s), essentially all inferences about animal reproductive activities in nature came from behavioral observations often coupled to evolutionary interpretations based on particular ecological or mating-system theories (e.g. Fisher, 1930; EPZ-6438 cell line Bateman, 1948; Ford, 1964; Williams, 1966; Lack, 1968; Emlen & Oring, 1977; Krebs & Davies, 1978). Beginning in the late-1960s, however, a succession of increasingly powerful molecular techniques were introduced that soon permitted direct genetic Sclareol appraisals of biological parentage (and hence of genetic mating systems) in natural populations (Avise, 1994), and also facilitated evolutionary

reconstructions of the phylogenetic histories of alternative reproductive practices across species and higher taxa (Harvey et al., 1996; Avise, 2006). These genetic and phylogenetic analyses opened everyone’s eyes to a plethora of reproductive shenanigans (including post-copulatory sperm competition) that had remained largely hidden or otherwise outside the spatial or temporal purview of even the most attentive field naturalists of earlier eras. These new sources of empirical information also rejuvenated interest in evolutionary theories about animal mating systems and reproductive behaviors (e.g. Trivers, 1972; Smith, 1984; Arnold & Duvall, 1994; Birkhead & Møller, 1998; Lucas & Simmons, 2006), which in turn gave further impetus to empirical studies in a synergism that continues to energize modern research in natural history and comparative reproductive biology.

Conclusion: These data suggest that HCV E2–mediated disruption of

Conclusion: These data suggest that HCV E2–mediated disruption of the association of PKCβ with the cellular secretory machinery represents a novel mechanism for HCV to evade the human immune response and to establish persistent infection. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;) The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the flavivirus family phylogenetically classified into seven genotypes, is an enveloped, icosahedral particle harboring a positive-strand RNA.1-3 Binding of HCV to the host cell involves an initial interaction between its envelope protein (E1/E2) and the receptors required for viral entry, potentially including CD81, scavenger receptor B type I low density lipoprotein

receptor (LDL-R), and claudin-1 (CLDN1) (reviewed in Stamataki et al.4). The CD81 molecule, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, binds HCV Fulvestrant E2 with high affinity through its large extracellular loop.5, 6 Up to 80%

of HCV cases result in chronic hepatitis associated with liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and in some cases non-Hodgkin lymphoma.7, 8 HCV evades the host immune response through a combination of both viral genetic mutation and interference with both innate and adaptive arms of the host immune response.9-11 T cell–mediated immunity is important for prevention of persistent infection with impaired T cell proliferative responses and changes in effector function associated with chronic infection.12-14 We previously demonstrated that a recombinant soluble form of HCV E2 interacts with CD81 to inhibit T lymphocyte

migration through relocalization of signaling molecules to the lipid raft compartment.15 We and others Adenosine triphosphate have shown that expression of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) is necessary for secretion of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) in T cells.16, 17 Chronically infected HCV patients frequently demonstrate a failure of their CD4+ T helper cells to secrete IL-2,18 and reduced CD4+ T cell proliferative capacity during acute infection is reported to contribute to viral persistence.19 We hypothesize that HCV E2/CD81–dependent sequestration of PKCβ into lipid raft compartments could reduce IL-2 secretion and contribute to HCV persistence. Using the recently developed HCV cell culture system (HCVcc)20 and recombinant HCV E2, we demonstrate that HCV E2 engagement of CD81 sequesters critical components of the T cell secretory machinery (including PKCβ) in the lipid raft compartment with resultant inhibition of cytokine secretion. ALD, alcoholic liver disease; BP, blocking peptide; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HCVcc, hepatitis C virus cell culture system; IFNγ, interferon-γ; IL-2, interleukin-2; MCD, methyl-β-cyclodextrin; mRNA, messenger RNA; PBC, primary biliary cirrhosis; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PKCβ, protein kinase C beta; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor-α.

Inhibition of Gsk3β protected livers against IRI by down-regulati

Inhibition of Gsk3β protected livers against IRI by down-regulating pro-inflammatory IL-12 and selectively sparing immune regulatory IL-10, resulting in broader suppression of pro-inflammatory gene programs, including TNF-α and CXCL10. Interestingly, IL-10 neutralization recreated liver IRI, stressing the importance of IL-10 immune regulatory mechanism in cytoprotection rendered by Gsk3 inhibition. Targeting Gsk3 has been proven an effective cardioprotective strategy.16 Unlike pre-conditioning, which triggers Gsk3β phosphorylation, reperfusion with Gsk3 inhibitors, added prior to or even post-ischemia, reduced cell death.17,

18 However, it was also shown that Gsk3 inactivation was not absolutely required for ischemia pre- and post-conditioning.28 Despite controversial in vivo data, the mechanistic basis of these studies Navitoclax was the finding that inhibition of Gsk3β in cardiomyocytes Selleckchem LDK378 delayed the opening of MPTP in the inner membrane, which protects cells from the intrinsic cell death pathway. The MPTP-triggered cell death was closely associated with IRI development.15 Along the same lines of cytoprotection, Gsk3 inhibition was also shown to protect kidneys and brains from IRI pathology,29-31 as well as livers from drug-induced

toxicity.32 Our in vitro hepatocyte culture data are consistent with the positive regulatory role of Gsk3 in stress-induced cell death pathway (data not shown). The liver protective effect of Gsk3 inhibition in vivo does not depend on its suppression of MPTP, as atractyloside, an MPTP opener, did not abolish the effect of SB216763 in our liver IR model. Furthermore, Gsk3 inhibition by SB216763 did not sensitize hepatocytes to TNF-α-induced cell death in vitro (data not shown). Our results show that the immune regulatory function of Gsk3 inhibition is critical for its beneficial enough effects in vivo, as IL-10 neutralization not only

restored liver pro-inflammatory phenotype, but also dictated the severity of hepatocellular damage. In vivo, SB216763-facilitated Gsk3 inhibition protects mice from endotoxin shock,12 in association with the suppression of pro-inflammatory IL-12, IL-6, IFN-γ and the increase of immune regulatory IL-10. Our study provides further evidence that the suppression of the pro-inflammatory program by Gsk3 inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo was mediated, at least partially, by an IL-10 autocrine mechanism. In macrophage cultures, Gsk3 inhibition selectively suppressed, as early as at 1 hour, LPS-induced IL-12p40 and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, IL-6. A broader suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurred only late (6 hours) and was IL-10-dependent. Importantly, an IL-10-dependent autocrine mechanism was involved in the regulation of CXCL10 by Gsk3 inhibition in response to TLR4 stimulation.

3%; specificity, 73 0%; positive predictive value, 26 1%; negativ

3%; specificity, 73.0%; positive predictive value, 26.1%; negative predictive value, 97.8%), respectively. Both baseline serum HBsAg <1,000 IU/mL (P = 0.006; odds ratio, 11.8; 95% CI, 2.02-68.97) and HBsAg reduction >0.166 log IU/mL/year (P = 0.003, odds ratio 17.3, 95% CI, 1.93-154.45) were significantly associated with subsequent HBsAg seroclearance. Three patients (4.3%) with both baseline HBsAg <1,000 IU/mL and HBsAg reduction >0.166 log IU/mL/year did not achieve

HBsAg seroclearance. After 10 years, their HBsAg levels had declined from 73.1, 210, and 980 IU/mL to 0.127, 128, and 151 IU/mL, respectively. The genotypic distribution of rs3077 genotypes is shown in Table 1 and was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (chi-squared, selleck 0.005; FK506 concentration P = 0.945). All seven patients achieving HBsAg seroclearance had the dominant C allele (CC genotype, n = 4; CT genotype, n = 3). Among patients with the dominant C allele (n = 65), 16 (24.6%) had baseline serum HBsAg <1,000 IU/mL; all five patients with the TT genotype had baseline serum HBsAg >1,000 IU/mL. When comparing the three rs3077 genotypes (CC versus CT versus TT), there was no significant difference noted in the median rate of HBsAg reduction (0.104, 0.117, and 0.081 log IU/mL/year, respectively; P = 0.884). Among patients with the rs3077-dominant C allele (n = 65), the rate of HBsAg reduction achieved a better AUC in predicting NA-related

HBsAg seroclearance (0.825; 95% CI, 0.655-0.996). The AUC of baseline serum HBsAg in predicting HBsAg seroclearance was similar (0.853; P = 0.005; 95% CI, 0.773-0.974). HBsAg seroclearance remains the ultimate therapeutic endpoint in the treatment of CHB. Few studies have investigated the factors influencing NA-related HBsAg seroclearance, not only because of its rarity in clinical practice, but also because potent NAs, including entecavir and tenofovir, have only been in clinical use for CHB for 7 and 4 years, respectively. Lamivudine was the first NA introduced

for use in CHB, and although resistance is common, 25% to 30% of patients were able to maintain good virologic suppression with long-term therapy.[6, 20] A recent study showed such patients achieving a cumulative HBsAg seroclearance rate of 21.5% after 10 years of therapy.[21] Our current study excluded patients with fluctuating Liothyronine Sodium viremia due to either resistance or drug noncompliance and only included patients on decade-long therapy who had responded favorably. Although excluding patients with poor virologic control meant we were unable to study the relationship between serum HBsAg titers and drug resistance, our current cohort of patients would be ideal in investigating the changes in serum HBsAg kinetics during long-term NA therapy and its association with NA-related HBsAg seroclearance. In our current study, with the long periods of low HBV DNA levels maintained during NA therapy, serum HBsAg decreased at approximately 0.

Animals received humane care in accordance with study guidelines

Animals received humane care in accordance with study guidelines established by the Tottori University Subcommittee on Laboratory APO866 mw Animal Care. Following acclimation for 1 week, KK-Ay and ob/ob mice were fed the normal and ATRA- or Am80-supplemented normal diets for 4 weeks. C57BL/6J mice were fed the HFHFr diet for 16 weeks and were divided randomly into two groups, after which they were then fed either the HFHFr diet or the ATRA-supplemented HFHFr diet for another 4 weeks. C57BL/6J mice fed the

normal diet for 20 weeks served as controls. The human hepatoma HepG2 cell line and the simian virus 40 temperature-sensitive large T antigen–immortalized mouse hepatocyte cell line TLR326 (Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Tohoku University) were maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (Nissui Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (MBL, Nagoya, Japan), and L-glutamine. Cultures were grown at 37°C (HepG2) or 33°C (TLR3) in 5% CO2 in a humidified incubator. All statistical comparisons were performed using the Student t test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All data are shown as the mean ± SD from 4-10 mice or independent experiments. Normal or ATRA-supplemented diets were given for

4 weeks to genetically insulin-resistant Rucaparib mouse KK-Ay or ob/ob mice.27 Although both groups demonstrated similar daily consumption of both diets, ATRA significantly inhibited body weight gain in KK-Ay and ob/ob mice (Supporting Fig. 1A,B). In KK-Ay mice, the ATRA-supplemented diet significantly mitigated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test), and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), as well as hyperleptinemia. Surprisingly, this diet did not affect these parameters, but rather, increased hyperglycemia in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (Fig. 1A-E; Supporting Fig.

1C). Because leptin acts as an antidiabetic adipokine in rodents and humans, the increased level of circulating leptin frequently observed in obese patients next is explained because of leptin resistance.3, 4 Thus, the decrease in serum leptin levels in KK-Ay mice indicates that ATRA reverses leptin resistance. Based on these observations, we postulated that ATRA might ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver in a leptin-dependent manner. To confirm this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects in vitro of ATRA and leptin on insulin-induced IRS1 phosphorylation. ATRA significantly enhanced insulin-induced IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the presence of leptin (Fig. 1F, Supporting Fig. 2). These data suggest that leptin was required for improved sensitivity of the liver to insulin in response to ATRA. Rodents fed a diet enriched with fat and fructose exhibit pathological features of NAFLD.

2003, Pisal and Lele 2004, Lohscheider et al 2011) In this stud

2003, Pisal and Lele 2004, Lohscheider et al. 2011). In this study, accumulation of carotenoids was observed

in drought-tolerant species L. boryana and C. vulgaris, but not in non-tolerant species (C. reinhardtii & K. flaccidum). Moreover, the dynamic of carotenoid content during PEG treatment was less pronounced in C. vulgaris than in L. boryana, showing a coincidence with the order of resistance to dehydration. Therefore, accumulation of carotenoids might play a role in drought stress and be associated with drought tolerance in the studied soil algae and cyanobacterium. The phycobiliproteins (PBP) including PC and APC are attached to thylakoid membranes in cyanobacterial PD-0332991 concentration cells (Grossman et al. 1993). Under stress conditions, the composition of PBP might vary (Reuter and Muller 1993). In this study, a decline of the PC/APC ratio was observed in L. boryana during treatment with PEG, implying not only PC was more susceptible than APC, but this might be ascribed to the inhibition of pigment synthesis. The external

localization of PC on intracellular thylakoid membrane might be one of the possible reasons for the greater sensitivity, due to more exposedness to the action of stress (Prasad et al. 2005). In response to stress conditions, a decrease (Jusu et al. 2004) or an increase (Assche et al. 1988) in cellular protein content has been reported for different organisms. GS-1101 In this study, the protein content of stressed cells, particularly of L. boryana, increased in response to drought stress induced by PEG, showing a positive correlation between elevated protein content and the degree of tolerance

to drought stress. It is assumed that the elevated protein content might be of stress proteins or closely correlated to this group of proteins. Under PEG treatment, the cyanobacterium L. boryana displayed a relatively higher tolerance than the chlorophytes. Other than the metabolic characteristics of this species, the tolerance might be attributed at least partially to the GBA3 presence of a mucilaginous envelope composed of EPS entangled in filamentous structure. EPS in the envelope would serve as a matrix for the immobilization of other components that may protect the cell walls from damage during swelling and shrinkage associated with drought stress (Caiola et al. 1996). Other than this, EPS would prevent cells from losing water to certain degree. This is particularly important for the BSC growing at the soils with low water-holding capacity, like the locality from which the studied strains are isolated. Thus, as indicated by Adhikary (1998), the presence of EPS in cyanobacteria might play an important role in drought tolerance. This is considered one of the reasons why L. boryana displays higher tolerance to drought stress than other three species studied. Chl-a is commonly used as a proxy for relative biomass (Kalchev et al.

The lowest mean net income occurs in the youngest and oldest age

The lowest mean net income occurs in the youngest and oldest age groups. The mean net income also declined from 2007 to 2010 in each age group (Fig 13). The age-earnings profile can also be used to estimate the accumulated net earnings over the career of a private practicing prosthodontist. The mean net income of prosthodontists together with the age of the practicing prosthodontist can be used to statistically estimate an age-earnings curve (Fig 14) of a prosthodontist over a career from age 32 years to age 72, a career of U0126 mouse 40 years. Multivariate regression

analysis was used to statistically estimate the age-earnings curves (Fig 14) where mean net income of a prosthodontist was the dependent variable, and age and age-squared were the independent variables.[12, 14] Note that each dot Belnacasan on the

curves in Figure 14 is an estimate of the mean net income of a prosthodontist at a particular age. These curves can be used to obtain an estimate of the career earnings by summing the estimated mean net incomes (represented by the curve dots in Fig 14) from the estimated curves for each age, 32 to 72 years. Using this methodology, the career earnings estimate for a private practicing prosthodontist using the age-earnings profiles (Fig 14) is $11.9

million in 2007 dollars compared to $10.9 million in 2010 dollars. Two factors must be taken into account before comparing these two career earnings estimates. First, the dollars comprising each estimate are of different value since the prosthodontist must, for example, wait 30 years to receive the estimated net earnings at age 62. A dollar of earnings received 30 years from now is not worth as much as the dollar of earnings received currently. When this time value of money is accounted for, the current value of the estimated career earnings is $4.8 million in 2007 dollars compared to $4.4 million dollars in 2010 dollars.[15] PRKACG Second, career earnings are stated in terms of the value of the dollar in 2 years, 2007 and 2010. After adjusting for cost of living differences between 2007 and 2010, the career earnings estimate in constant 2010 dollars is $5.1 million dollars from 2007 and $4.4 million from 2010. Since 2007, the estimated career earnings estimate has declined by $700,000 dollars. Career earnings are a significant factor in the rate of return to education of a prosthodontist.[14, 16] A continued decline in prosthodontist career earnings would, ceteris paribus, lead to a decline in the rate of return to an investment in residency training in prosthodontics.

[32] Because gallstone disease is a hard

clinical endpoin

[32] Because gallstone disease is a hard

clinical endpoint with well-defined diagnostic critera, the risk of misclassification is likely minor, and individuals receiving ICD codes for gallstones in hospitals likely had symptomatic gallstones. In support of this, approximately 68% of individuals with symptomatic gallstone disease in our cohort underwent cholecystectomy.[11] However, we cannot rule out that a small fraction of symptomatic gallstones defined this way were, in fact, asymptomatic gallstones diagnosed incidentally. Another potential limitation to our definition of symptomatic gallstone disease is that treating physicians might be more suspicious of gallbladder disease in obese than in lean individuals. Such an ascertainment bias might have led to a slight Selleckchem PLX4032 overestimation of the BMI-gallstone association in the present study. However, the estimates of the BMI-gallstone association reported here are in agreement with those from previous studies that used ultrasound to diagnose gallstones in asymptomatic individuals (i.e., studies unlikely to suffer from ascertainment bias).[1, 2] Also, we did not have data on stone composition (i.e., cholesterol/mixed/pigment).

Thus, the pathophysiological mechanisms by which obesity influences gallstone formation could not be assessed here. Finally, we only studied white individuals of Danish descent. Because ethnic differences in gallstone prevalence are well known, the results reported here may not necessarily translate to other else ethnicities. There are also potential limitations to the use of the Mendelian randomization approach.[8] For this website example, the genetic variants used may have influenced risk of symptomatic gallstone disease by other pathways than BMI (i.e., pleiotropy). However, this concern is lessened by the use of multiple genetic variants, each associated with increased BMI and each influencing BMI independently and by different pathways.[8, 10] Also, the effect of lifelong genetically elevated BMI may have been buffered by compensatory biological mechanisms (i.e., canalisation). Canalization might theoretically obscure effects of BMI-associated genetic variants

on symptomatic gallstone disease and would thus tend to drive associations toward the null, but is unlikely to account for positive associations, as those reported in the present study. In conclusion, elevated BMI as measured at baseline, as well as genetically (lifelong and unconfounded) elevated BMI, is associated with increased risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. Taken together, this indicates that elevated BMI per se is likely a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease, which is most pronounced in women. These data reemphasize obesity as a major cause of human morbidity and provide additional impetus for lifestyle interventions aimed at weight loss among overweight and obese individuals in the general population.

[31, 32] Orwin’s Nfs determines the number of additional studies

[31, 32] Orwin’s Nfs determines the number of additional studies in a meta-analysis yielding null effect sizes that would be needed to

yield a “trivial” OR of 1.05. Researchers suggest that meta-analysts calculate a tolerance level around a fail-safe N that is equal to 5 times the number of effects included in the meta-analysis plus 10 (the “5k + 10” benchmark).[32, 33] Moreover, the association between the standardized effect sizes and the variances of these effects was analyzed by rank correlation with use of the Kendall tau method. If small studies with negative results were less likely to be published, the correlation between variance and effect size CCI-779 price would be high. Conversely, a lack of a significant correlation can be interpreted as the absence of publication bias.[34] After the removal of duplicates, a list of 137 potentially eligible studies was generated (Fig. 1). Based on titles and abstracts, 57 articles were excluded at the

first screening because they were qualitative studies, reviews or commentaries, or studies that did not measure school bullying. Seven studies35-41 were not available in full text. Full-text copies of the remaining 73 potentially relevant studies were obtained. Thirty-seven studies were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria (eg, they did not have a control group). Fifteen studies did not report enough data to compute effect sizes or confidence intervals. As a result, the remaining 20 studies were included for this meta-analysis. Inhibitor Library Celecoxib Three studies were longitudinal studies, and 17 employed a cross-sectional design. The Table

summarizes the characteristics of the studies included in this meta-analysis, including sample-size and response rate, age and gender composition of the sample, type of measures, study design, and type of sampling. A total of 173,775 children and adolescents participated in the 20 studies. Across the 17 studies that provided information about the sample’s gender composition, 51.3% (range: 32.8-62.4%) of the participants were girls. Fourteen studies reported data on the prevalence of headache, which was on average 32.7% (range: 9.1-71.7%) in the bullied group and 19.1% (range: 5.3-46.1%) in the control group. Five studies were from Norway,42-45 2 of which were from the same publication; 2 respectively from India,[46, 47] the Netherlands,[48, 49] Turkey,[50, 51] and the United States;[52, 53] and 1 respectively from China,[54] Finland,[44] Greenland,[55] Italy,[56] the United Kingdom,[57] and Russia.[58] One article reported data from multiple countries.[18] Information about race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) of the participants was not systematically reported in all studies.

Additional thanks are offered to Dr Stephan Haney, Dr Paul McLo

Additional thanks are offered to Dr. Stephan Haney, Dr. Paul McLornan, and Dr. James Andry for their mentorship

and support throughout this project. “
“Purpose: This study evaluated bond strengths of four soft liners to fiber-reinforced (FR) and unreinforced poly methyl(methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resin. Materials and Methods: The autopolymerized denture-base resin Palapress Vario (Heraus Kulzer GmbH, Hanau, Germany) was used as the substrate (15 × 15 × 5 mm3). The test group consisted of substrates reinforced with porous PMMA preimpregnated unidirectional glass fibers (Stick [StickTech, Turku, Finland]) (PMMA + FR group), and the control group was unreinforced acrylic resin (PMMA group) MLN0128 cell line (n = 80 per group). One of four soft liners (Ufi Gel SC [Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany], Sofreliner Tough [Tokuyama Dental Corporation, Tokyo, Japan], Vertex SoftSil 25 [Vertex-Dental B.V., Zeist, The Netherlands], and Eversoft [Dentsply Austenal, York, PA]) was placed and cured

between two substrates using a polyethylene ring (10 mm inner radius, 3 mm height). Tensile bond strength tests (crosshead speed = 10 mm/min) were performed, and the results were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test (p= 0.05). Fracture surfaces were categorized as adhesive or cohesive-mixed modes, and failure types were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: FR did not affect the bond strength results significantly (p > 0.05) except for Ufi Gel SC. Significant differences in bond strength were found among the reline materials (p < 0.001). FR specimens showed a significantly higher number of cohesive-mixed fractures compared to unreinforced specimens (p < 0.05), except for plasticized acrylic-based reline material (Eversoft [Dentsply Austenal]),

which showed fewer cohesive-mixed failures with FR. Conclusions: The choice of appropriate reline material system with FR acrylic resin is important else for the soft liner/denture-base polymer bond. Glass FR did not have a decreasing effect on the bond strength, except for Ufi Gel SC. “
“Purpose: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the fracture resistance and fracture mode of endodontically treated teeth with wide root canals restored with various dowel methods. Materials and Methods: Fifty human uniradicular mandibular premolar teeth were decoronated and endodontically treated. The canals were widened with diamond points. The specimens were divided into five groups on the basis of type of dowel method used: conventional custom-made cast metal dowel; single glass fiber-reinforced resin dowel; glass fiber-reinforced resin dowel with accessory fiber dowels; relined glass fiber-reinforced resin dowel; and dowels formed with the help of polyethylene fiber ribbon-reinforced resin composite.