Current European Guidelines suggest that third-line therapy be based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing after obtaining biopsy specimens for culture . In this regard, three interesting studies from China , Taiwan , and Italy  have shown promising results through this strategy. In the first
study, four different bismuth-based quadruple therapies combining amoxicillin, tetracycline, furazolidone, or metronidazole achieved cure rates >90% in patients with one or more previous therapy failure, even with metronidazole resistance . In the Taiwanese 3-Methyladenine price study, individualized regimens according to resistance as defined by PCR genotyping led to eradication rates of 78.9% (15/19), 92.2% (47/51), and 71.4% in patients who received clarithromycin-, levofloxacin- and tetracycline-based sequential therapies, respectively . In Italy, a culture-based rescue antibiotic strategy showed eradication rates for levofloxacin triple therapy of 90% and rifabutin triple therapy of 88.6% . By contrast, one recent study suggested that 99.5% eradication
can be achieved by the adoption of an empiric third-line regimen PI3K inhibitor . As a third-line regimen, levofloxacin plus rifaximin was seen to be successful in 65% of cases with standard triple therapy and bismuth-based quadruple therapy prior failure in China . A study from Korea showed better eradication for rifabutin-based triple therapy than levofloxacin-based therapy (71.4 vs 57.1%) . In Italy, 67.2% of patients obtained check details eradication from a third-line levofloxacin regimen  and 65% with a ciprofloxacin-based third-line triple therapy with PPI and metronidazole . Two studies from Japan have reported promising results with a new generation quinolone -sitafloxacin- as a third-line regimen. In a pilot study, triple sitafloxacin-based therapy achieved 75% cure rates , whereas a multicenter trial reported
that a triple regimen with sitafloxacin was more effective than levofloxacin, with eradication rates of 70 vs 43.1% . One study from Japan suggested that a 14-day high-dose PPI and amoxicillin dual therapy were an effective option (63%), especially for patients with low pretreatment urea breath test titers indicating a small load of H. pylori . Two studies from Italy  and Spain , this latter being the largest series reported to date involving 100 patients, have reported a 50% eradication rate for rifabutin as a fourth-line agent. Interesting work was carried out on H. pylori resistance this year in diverse parts of the world. A large-scale multicentre European study revealed resistance rates of 17.5% for clarithromycin, 14.1% for levofloxacin and 34.