Volatile compounds in exhaled breath may be of endogenous (i.e. derived from host cells), exogenous or microbial origin. Hence it is crucial to investigate the contribution of microorganisms of the normal flora (originating from body compartments like the gut, upper airways, sinuses, nose or mouth) and of microorganisms expanded during infections to the VOCs found in human breath. Numerous species which are found in normal flora of humans may also become pathogenic, e.g. when the immune system is weakened . In this work two different bacterial species [2, 39] were investigated with respect of the release of VOCs. In the past,
such or similar investigations were performed applying GC-MS, however, mostly with only qualitative and not quantitative analysis of detected VOCs [6, 7, 9, 10, H 89 26, 40] or for instance with indirect quantification without calibration of VOCs of interest . In our in vitro work we found that the patterns of VOC release from S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are only in part identical, and considerable differences were found concerning the dynamics of VOC production and especially the uptake of volatile metabolites. Thus, P. aeruginosa takes up or catabolizes (but never releases)
aldehydes, in contrast to S. aureus, which releases high concentrations of aldehydes. Similarly, no acids were significantly released by P. aeruginosa in our study. Despite higher proliferation rate of P. aeruginosa buy Doramapimod the concentrations of released metabolites were lower from those secreted by S. aureus. A greater variety of volatile compounds was found in the headspace of P. aeruginosa as compared to S. aureus comprising diverse ketones, esters, sulfur containing compounds, hydrocarbons and additionally nitrogen containing compounds, which were not detectable in the headspace of S. aureus. Zechman and co-workers have identified several identical compounds as reported here in however the headspace of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa (e.g. acetoin and methylbutanal for S. aureus, 1-undecene and
ketones for P. aeruginosa and DMDS and iso-pentanol for both species) using aerobic conditions similar to us with application of liquid culture and tryptic soy broth as culture medium . However, they did only qualitative analyses at one incubation time point of 24 h. Besides similarities in our study to other works, also divergent results were obtained [6, 7, 11, 26, 30, 40]. In this respect, Scott-Thomas  and Labows  identified 2-aminoacetophenone as an important volatile metabolite of P. aeruginosa, which allows discrimination of cystic Fedratinib mw fibrosis patients colonized with P. aeruginosa from control groups (healthy subjects and CF patients colonized with other bacteria species) . This compound could not be detected in the headspace of P.