A growing body of evidence has suggested that reactive oxygen spe

A growing body of evidence has suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in the regulation of AT(1)R signaling. In cardiac fibroblasts, stimulation with cytokines or bacterial toxins induces AT(1)R up-regulation Idasanutlin ic50 through NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. In contrast, nitric oxide (NO) decreases

AT(1)R density through cysteine modification (S-nitrosylation) of a transcriptional factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). The difference between the effects of ROS and NO on AT(1)R expression may be caused by the difference between intracellular location of ROS signaling and that of NO signaling, as the agonist-induced S-nitrosylation of NF-kappa B requires a local interaction SAHA molecular weight between NO synthase (NOS) and NF-kappa B in the perinuclear region. Thus, the spatial and temporal regulation of cysteine modification by ROS or RNS may underlie the resultant changes of AT(1)R signaling induced by agonist stimulation. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We analyze the influence of the update dynamics on symmetric 2-player evolutionary

games, which are among the most used tools to study the emergence of cooperation in populations of interacting agents. A synchronous dynamics means that, at each time step, all the agents of the population update their strategies simultaneously. An extreme case of asynchronism is sequential dynamics, in which only one agent is updated each time. We first show that these two opposite update dynamics can lead to very different outcomes and that sequential dynamics is detrimental to the emergence of cooperation only when the probability of imitating the most successful neighbors is high. In this sense, we can

say that, when the update dynamics has some influence, in general asynchronism is Montelukast Sodium beneficial to the emergence of cooperation. We then explore the consequences of using intermediate levels of asynchronism, where only a fraction of the agents update their behavior each time. In general, the level of cooperation changes smoothly and monotonically as we gradually go from synchronous to sequential dynamics. However, there are some exceptions that should be taken into account. In addition, the results show that the possibility of agents taking irrational decisions has a key role in the sensitivity of these models to changes in the update dynamics. Explanations for the observed behaviors are advanced. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Formation of nitric oxide and its derivative reactive nitrogen species during endotoxemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the associated cardiovascular dysfunction. This stress can promote nitrosative post-translational modifications of proteins that may alter their activity and contribute to dysregulation.

A similar increase was not observed in peripheral-blood mononucle

A similar increase was not observed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from a patient with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID). Treatment with anakinra completely resolved the symptoms and lesions.”
“Purpose: We determined whether laparoscopic nephrectomy confers improved health related quality of life in the early postoperative period compared with open nephrectomy.

Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing open or laparoscopic nephrectormy Saracatinib molecular weight were prospectively recruited. Patients completed the Comorbidity Symptom Scale preoperatively as well as the SF-36 (R) quality of life health survey and pain visual analog scale preoperatively, and 2 days and

1 month postoperatively.

Results: A total of 100 patients were recruited, of whom 71 completed all questionnaires, including 38 in the laparoscopic group and 33 in the open group. In the 2 groups mean patient age was the same (56.8 years) and there was a similar sex distribution. The laparoscopic group had improved quality of

life scores with significantly higher physical component scores 1 month postoperatively vs the open group (-5.7% vs -22.2%, p = 0.009). The laparoscopic group also had significantly higher mental component scores 2 days postoperatively vs the open group compared to baseline (6.0% vs -6.6%, p = 0.009). The laparoscopic group had significantly lower pain visual analog scale Lenvatinib price scores 1 month postoperatively compared to baseline. Patients with higher Comorbidity Symptom Scale scores were more likely to undergo a laparoscopic approach (p = 0.036). Despite this they had a significantly shorter hospital stay (4 vs 6 days, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Quality of life benefits of laparoscopic over open nephrectomy were found in the early postoperative period despite

more not comorbidities in the laparoscopic group. This provides further evidence of the benefits of the laparoscopic approach over open surgery.”
“Purpose: C-reactive protein has been shown to be a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma. We developed a new prediction model including C-reactive protein in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Materials and Methods: This study is based on 2 cohorts of Japanese patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, including 249 for evaluating prognostic factors and developing the prediction model, and 290 for external validation. Analyzed factors included TNM classification, tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade, tumor necrosis and preoperative serum C-reactive protein (cutoff 0.5 mg/dl). We developed a scoring model based on multivariate analysis to predict cancer specific survival. Predictive ability of the model was evaluated using the concordance index.

Results: Multivariate analysis showed that pT stage, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, tumor necrosis and C-reactive protein were independent predictors of cancer specific survival.

Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in prostate size

Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in prostate size are highly variable among aging men. Although benign prostatic PF01367338 hyperplasia is common, a considerable proportion of aging men have a stable or decreasing prostate size. Further research is needed to identify the underlying mechanism for such differences in prostate growth.”
“OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of NSC migration in the brain and its time course after NSC transplantation.

METHODS: We investigated the tropism of HB1.F3 (F3) immortalized human NSCs in rats bearing U373 human glioma in the brain.

Rats received an injection of human U373MG malignant glioma cells into the striatum followed by an injection of F3 cells into the contralateral hemisphere 7 days later. We analyzed the numbers, distribution, and migration rate of NSCs using unbiased stereology.

RESULTS: Approximately 10% of the injected NSCs migrated into the tumor region by 50 minutes after NSC injection. The number of NSCs in the tumor region increased slowly up to 5 days post-injection and increased significantly up to 15 days post-injection. Changes

in tumor volume showed similar patterns. The rate of NSC migration was approximately 175 mu m/min. NSCs increased in ARS-1620 manufacturer number approximately 1.7-fold during day 1 in the absence of tumor cell inoculation in vivo. However, the proliferation of NSCs began to decline after 5 days after injection.

CONCLUSION: We identified for the first time the rate and pattern of NSC migration to the tumor mass in vivo. These findings may provide useful

information with respect to preclinical research of gene therapy for malignant gliomas.”
“Purpose: While some studies have indicated that alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia, others have not. We evaluated associations of alcohol consumption with benign prostatic hyperplasia and male lower urinary tract symptoms.

Materials and Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of published studies pertaining to alcohol intake, benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. We analyzed abstracted data with random effects models to obtain pooled odds ratios of adjusted effects estimates.

Results: A total of 19 studies (120,091 men) PLEK2 met selection criteria and of these studies 14 revealed a significantly decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia or lower urinary tract symptoms with increased alcohol intake. Sixteen studies were eligible for pooled analyses, of which 12 used benign prostatic hyperplasia as the primary outcome. We stratified total alcohol intake by gin per day into 6 strata. Alcohol intake was associated with a significantly or marginally significantly decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia in all 6 strata (p values 0.08, 0.01, <0.001, 0.02, 0.001 and <0.001, respectively).

Autoradiography of [(3)H]-mazindol binding revealed

a dec

Autoradiography of [(3)H]-mazindol binding revealed

a decrease in striatal dopamine transporter check details binding only in mice treated with the highest dose of MDMA.

This study demonstrates that repeated treatment with MDMA decreases the incentive motivation for a palatable food reward and that long-lasting MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity increases the resistance to extinction of responding in the absence of reward.”
“Background The effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) strategies on diabetes care remains unclear. We aimed to assess the effects of QI strategies on glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), vascular risk management, microvascular complication monitoring, and smoking cessation in patients with diabetes.

Methods We identified studies through Medline, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care database

(from inception to July 2010), and references of included randomised clinical trials. We included trials assessing 11 predefined QI strategies or financial incentives targeting health systems, health-care professionals, or patients to improve management of adult outpatients with diabetes. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and appraised risk of bias.

Findings We reviewed 48 cluster randomised controlled trials, including 2538 clusters and 84 865 patients, and 94 patient randomised Selisistat controlled trials, including 38 664 patients. In random effects meta-analysis, the QI strategies reduced HbA(1c) by a mean

difference of 0.37% (95% CI 0.28-0.45; 120 trials), LDL cholesterol by 0.10 mmol/L (0.05-0.14; 47 trials), systolic blood pressure by 3.13 mm Hg (2.19-4.06, 65 trials), and diastolic Tau-protein kinase blood pressure by 1.55 mm Hg (0.95-2.15, 61 trials) versus usual care. We noted larger effects when baseline concentrations were greater than 8.0% for HbA(1c), 2.59 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 80 mm Hg for diastolic and 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure. The effectiveness of QI strategies varied depending on baseline HbA(1c) control. QI strategies increased the likelihood that patients received aspirin (11 trials; relative risk [RR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45), antihypertensive drugs (ten trials; RR 1.17, 1.01-1.37), and screening for retinopathy (23 trials; RR 1.22, 1.13-1.32), renal function (14 trials; RR 128, 1.13-1.44), and foot abnormalities (22 trials; RR 1.27, 1.16-1.39). However, statin use (ten trials; RR 1.12, 0.99-1.28), hypertension control (18 trials; RR 1.01, 0.96-1.07), and smoking cessation (13 trials; RR 1.13, 0.99-1.29) were not significantly increased.

Interpretation Many trials of QI strategies showed improvements in diabetes care. Interventions targeting the system of chronic disease management along with patient-mediated QI strategies should be an important component of interventions aimed at improving diabetes management.

At 3-year followup International Prostate Symptom Score had impro

At 3-year followup International Prostate Symptom Score had improved by 70.5%, quality of life had improved by 69.4%, maximum urinary flow rate had increased by 164% and post-void residual urine had decreased by 81% in the holmium laser ablation group. In the photoselective vaporization learn more group International Prostate Symptom Score improved by 64.1%, quality of life improved by 65.5%, maximum urinary flow rate increased by 189% and post-void residual urine decreased by 79.5%. The overall

re-treatment rate was 15.8% for holmium laser ablation vs 19.3% for photoselective vaporization.

Conclusions: Prostate photoselective vaporization and holmium laser ablation are effective surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Postoperative functional improvements were significant and durable, and equivalent in the 2 groups. The 2 techniques have a similar complication rate.”
“BACKGROUND GSK126 AND IMPORTANCE: Giant fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery are associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of these lesions can be difficult, especially when there are poor anatomic collaterals such as posterior communicating arteries. These lesions often have no acceptable treatment. The authors present a case of a patient with a symptomatic, fusiform basilar artery aneurysm successfully

treated with a side-by-side (double-barrel), telescoping stent construct.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man presented with chief concerns of dysarthria and left-sided hemiparesis. MRI and conventional catheter-based angiography revealed a dolichoectatic basilar artery with 3 large fusiform aneurysms throughout its length. Flow through the patient’s aneurysm was successfully reduced

with a side-by-side stent construct and coiling of the proximal aneurysm dilation. The patient experienced stabilization of his ischemic events and neurologic recovery. A total of 6 Neurform-2 4.5 x 30-mm stents were navigated and positioned from the proximal posterior cerebral arteries to the distal vertebral arteries in a side-by-side (double-barrel), MTMR9 telescoping manner. These were deployed simultaneously by 2 operators to oppose the stent struts as well as the arterial wall. Next, the proximal aneurysmal dilation was coiled to near occlusion. Successful flow redirection and aneurysm thrombosis was observed.

CONCLUSION: A novel, endovascular stenting technique for successfully treating symptomatic, giant basilar artery aneurysms is presented. This patient at 4 months was living independently with no further neurologic events or decline.”
“Purpose: We provide the long-term results of renal transplantation into continent urinary intestinal reservoirs as a planned 2-stage procedure.

Viral nucleic acids in trivalent oral poliovirus (OPV), rubella,

Viral nucleic acids in trivalent oral poliovirus (OPV), rubella, measles, yellow fever, varicella-zoster, multivalent measles/mumps/rubella, and two rotavirus live vaccines were partially purified, randomly amplified, and pyrosequenced. Over half a million sequence reads were generated covering from 20 to 99% of the attenuated viral genomes at depths reaching up to 8,000 reads per nucleotides. Mutations and minority variants, relative to vaccine strains, not known to affect attenuation were

check details detected in OPV, mumps virus, and varicella-zoster virus. The anticipated detection of endogenous retroviral sequences from the producer avian and primate cells was confirmed. Avian leukosis virus (ALV), previously shown to be noninfectious for humans, was present as RNA in

viral particles, while simian retrovirus (SRV) was present as genetically defective DNA. Rotarix, an orally administered rotavirus vaccine, contained GSK461364 mouse porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1), a highly prevalent nonpathogenic pig virus, which has not been shown to be infectious in humans. Hybridization of vaccine nucleic acids to a panmicrobial microarray confirmed the presence of endogenous retroviral and PCV1 nucleic acids. Deep sequencing and microarrays can therefore detect attenuated virus sequence changes, minority variants, and adventitious viruses and help maintain the current safety record of live-attenuated viral vaccines.”
“Olfactory dysfunction may precede common neurodegenerative disorders in

the elderly, such as Alzheimer (AD) or Parkinson disease (PD). However, pathobiological mechanisms of olfactory loss in the elderly are poorly understood. Although nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation is a key patholobiological feature of PD, age-associated nigrostriatal denervation (AASDD) occurs also with normal aging and can be more prominent in some elderly. We investigated the relationship between AASDD and olfactory performance in community-dwelling subjects. Community-dwelling subjects (n = 73, 44 F/29 M, mean age 64.0 +/- 16.4, range 20-85) Methane monooxygenase underwent brain dopamine transporter (DAT)[C-11]2-beta-carbomethoxy-3 beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane (beta-CFT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and olfactory assessment using the 40-odor University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Subjects with clinical or DAT PET evidence of Parkinson disease (PD) were not eligible for the study. AASDD was defined based on normative data in young and middle-aged subjects. Compared to a mild and general linear decline in odor identification observed in most subjects (R-2 = 0.18, P = 0.0002), there were 13 subjects who deviated below the 5% confidence interval level in age-predicted UPSIT scores. Analysis limited to elderly subjects 60 years and over demonstrated a significant association between poor smell (n = 10 out of 49, 20.4%) and AASDD (chi(2) = 4.4, P<0.05).

Following low-threshold Na+ current inactivation, high-threshold

Following low-threshold Na+ current inactivation, high-threshold buy GDC-0973 TTX-r Na+ current, evoked from HP -60 mV, was observed. High-threshold Na+ current amplitude averaged 16,592 +/- 3913 pA for TPs to 0 mV, was first detectable at an average TP of -34 +/- 1.3 mV, and was 1/2 activated at -7.1 +/- 2.3 mV. In TG cells expressing prominent low-threshold Na+ currents, changing the external solution to one containing 0 mM Na+ reduced the amount of current required to hold the cells at -80 mV through -50 mV, the peak effect being observed at HP -60 mV. TG cells recorded from with a more physiological

pipette solution containing chloride instead of fluoride exhibited small low-threshold Na+ currents, which were greatly increased upon superfusion of the TG cells with the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin. These data suggest two hypotheses: (1) low- and high-threshold Na(V)1.9 and Na(V)1.8 channels, respectively, are frequently co-expressed in TG neurons serving the TMJ and other structures, and (2), Na(V)1.9 channel-mediated currents are small under physiological conditions, but may be enhanced by inflammatory mediators that increase Sepantronium cell line AC activity, and may mediate an inward leak that depolarizes TG neurons, increasing their excitability. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Neonatal interventions are largely focused on reduction of mortality

and progression towards Millennium Development Goal 4 (child survival). However, little

is known about the global burden of long-term consequences of intrauterine and neonatal insults. We did a systematic review to estimate risks of long-term Resveratrol neurocognitive and other sequelae after intrauterine and neonatal insults, especially in low-income and middle-income countries.

Methods We searched Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Library, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1966, and June 30, 2011, that reported neurodevelopmental sequelae after preterm or neonatal insult. For unpublished studies and grey literature, we searched Dissertation Abstracts Inter national and the WHO library. We reviewed publications that had data for long-term outcome after defined neonatal insults. We summarised the results with medians and IQRs, and calculated the risk of at least one sequela after insult.

Findings Of 28 212 studies identified by our search, 153 studies were suitable for inclusion, documenting 22 161 survivors of intrauterine or neonatal insults. The overall median risk of at least one sequela in any domain was 39.4% (IQR 20.0-54.8), with a risk of at least one severe impairment in any insult domain of 18.5% (7.7-33.3), of at least one moderate impairment of 5.0% (0.0-13.3%), and of at least one mild impairment of 10.0% (1.4-17.9%).

(C) 2011 IBRO Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The lifelong infection by varicelloviruses is characterized by a fine balance between the host immune response and immune evasion strategies used by these viruses. Virus-derived peptides are presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) transports the peptides from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, where the loading of MHC-I molecules occurs. The varicelloviruses bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1),

pseudorabies virus, and equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 have been found to encode a UL49.5 protein that inhibits TAP-mediated peptide transport. To investigate to what extent UL49.5-mediated GS-9973 TAP inhibition is conserved within the family of Alphaherpesvirinae, the homologs of another five varicelloviruses, Dactolisib one mardivirus, and one iltovirus were studied. The UL49.5 proteins of BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesvirus 1, and felid herpesvirus 1 were identified as potent TAP inhibitors. The varicella-zoster

virus and simian varicellovirus UL49.5 proteins fail to block TAP; this is not due to the absence of viral cofactors that might assist in this process, since cells infected with these viruses did not show reduced TAP function either. The UL49.5 homologs of the mardivirus Marek’s disease virus 1 and the iltovirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus did not block TAP, suggesting that the capacity to inhibit TAP via UL49.5 has been acquired by varicelloviruses only. A phylogenetic analysis

of viruses that inhibit TAP through their UL49.5 proteins reveals an interesting hereditary pattern, pointing toward the presence of this capacity in defined clades within the genus Varicellovirus.”
“Some peripheral steroids penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), providing at least substances for the CNS steroid metabolome. That is why the predictive value of the peripheral steroids appears to be comparable with that of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) steroids. The concentrations of the CSF steroids are pronouncedly lower in comparison with the ones in circulation. The available data indicate that the levels of pregnenolone sulfate substantially increase in the rat brain tissue Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase after the administration of pregnenolone into the circulation. In the human circulation there are about two orders of magnitude higher levels of pregnenolone sulfate compared to the free pregnenolone. Our data show insignificant correlation between CSF and serum pregnenolone, but a borderline one between CSF pregnenolone and serum pregnenolone sulfate. Therefore in humans, the circulating pregnenolone sulfate might be of an importance for pregnenolone concentration in the CNS. In contrast to free pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the CSF correlates with both unconjugated and conjugated DHEA in the serum.

Our results suggest that

Our results suggest that I-BET151 the changes in dendritic spine density in the hippocampus may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of and recovery from depression, and the neuronal plasticity of CA1 is first impaired during the development of depression.”
“Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) was shown to contain catalase, an enzyme able to detoxify hydrogen peroxide by converting it to water and oxygen. Studies

with a catalase inhibitor indicated that virus-associated catalase can have a role in protecting the virus from oxidative inactivation. HSV-1 was found to be more sensitive to killing by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalase inhibitor than in its absence. The results suggest a protective role for catalase during the time HSV-1 spends in the oxidizing environment outside a host cell.”
“While recent years have witnessed a growing interest in Voluntary Task Switching (VTS), the control mechanisms that are required in order to switch tasks on a voluntary basis remain to be identified. Starting from the finding that in VTS the proportion of task repetitions is usually higher than the proportion of task switches (task-repetition bias), the present electrophysiological buy VX-680 study tests and confirms the hypothesis that, during VTS, one initially re-selects the previously executed task, before correcting this bias and selecting

the alternative task. On the one hand, these findings allow us to describe how people switch cognitive tasks voluntarily. On the other hand, our approach underlines the usefulness of electrophysiological measures in understanding the processes by which voluntary behavior occurs.”
“Dysfunctional glutamate neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Abnormal expressions in schizophrenia of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and the proteins

that regulate their trafficking have been found to be region and subunit specific in brain, suggesting that abnormal trafficking of iGluRs may contribute toward altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. DCLK1 The post-translational modification N-glycosylation of iGluR subunits can be used as a proxy for their intracellular localization. Receptor complexes assemble in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where N-glycosylation begins with the addition of N-linked oligomannose glycans, and is subsequently trimmed and replaced by more elaborate glycans while trafficking through the Golgi apparatus. Previously, we found abnormalities in N-glycosylation of the GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated N-glycosylation of N-methyl-d-aspartate and kainate (KA) receptor subunits in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from patients with schizophrenia and a comparison group.

Results show that Igf2(-/-) neonatal mice are more susceptible to

Results show that Igf2(-/-) neonatal mice are more susceptible to motor neuron damage than Igf2(+/+) mice, as they have a significantly lower percentage of motor neuron survival after a sciatic nerve transection. Neuronal survival was significantly improved in Igf2(-/-) mice when IGF2 was administered. These results support the role of IGF2 in neonatal motor neuron survival. NeuroReport 20:1414-1418 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins.”
“Learning and memory are cognitive functions commonly impaired after surgery, especially in elderly patients. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of sevoflurane anaesthesia on episodic-like memory in young and aged wild-type mice and mice with Crenigacestat solubility dmso altered nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission (beta 2KO). Mice learned objects before randomization to control, anaesthesia or sham groups. Anaesthesia was maintained at 2.6% sevoflurane for 2 h, starting immediately after training. Object memory testing was performed after 24 h, when one familiar object was replaced by a nonfamiliar object. While nonanaesthetized mice showed memory retention of the familiar object, anaesthetized wild-type and beta 2KO mice showed impaired memory. Sevoflurane anaesthesia thus causes memory

impairment in mice Mocetinostat in vitro regardless of beta 2 receptor-mediated nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission. NeuroReport 20:1419-1423 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer G protein-coupled receptor kinase Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Two reactive oxygen

species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO(center dot)) and superoxide ((center dot)O(2)(-)), contribute to persistent pain. Using three different animal models where ROS mediate pain, this study examined whether NO(center dot) and (center dot)O(2)(-) converge to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) or whether each has an independent signaling pathway to produce hyperalgesia. The hyperalgesia after spinal nerve ligation was attenuated by removing (center dot)O(2)(-) by TEMPOL or inhibiting NO(center dot) production by L-NAME, but not by removing peroxynitrite with FeTMPyP. Nitric oxide-induced hyperalgesia was not affected by removing (center dot)O(2)(-) but was reduced by a guanyl cyclase inhibitor. Superoxide-induced hyperalgesia was not affected by inhibiting NO(center dot) production but was suppressed by a protein kinase C inhibitor. The data suggest that NO(center dot) and (center dot)O(2)(-) operate independently to generate pain. NeuroReport 20:1424-1428 (C) 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Consolidation of synaptic plasticity seems to require transcription, but how the nucleus is informed in this context remains unknown.