These technical complications check details influenced posttransplant observations. Renal artery thrombosis resulted in anuria and increased serum creatinine levels. A stenotic renal vein was associated with a greater peak of serum creatinine. These complications were prevented by modifying the surgical technique accordingly.\n\nConclusions. We developed and optimized a reproducible model of porcine kidney autotransplantation. Herein we have demonstrated the importance of a proper surgical anastomotic technique to avoid inflow or outflow obstruction that might jeopardize posttransplant kidney function. This clinically relevant model offers the possibility to study various aspects related to
kidney preservation without the interference of an
allogeneic immune response.”
“Litchi chinensis pericarp from litchi processing waste is an important plant source of A-type procyanidins, which were considered a natural dietary supplement because of their high biological activity in vivo. Litchi pericarp oligomeric procyanidins (LPOPCs) did not selectively modify the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus casei-01 at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL, and it was demonstrated that the two strains could transform procyanidins during their log period of growth by two different pathways. S. thermophilus was able to metabolize procyanidin A2 to its isomer, and L. casei could decompose flavan-3-ols into 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic Bromosporine cost acid, m-coumaric acid, and p-coumaric acid. The total
antioxidant capability (T-AOC) of LPOPCs before and after microbial incubation was estimated, and the results suggested that probiotic bacteria bioconversion is a feasible and efficient method to convert litchi pericarp procyanidins to a more effective antioxidant agent.”
“One-pot etherification reaction of aromatic Daporinad inhibitor and some aliphatic carbonyl compounds with organic halides in the presence of sodium hydride as a reducing reagent proceeded smoothly in dioxane, a polar solvent with higher boiling point, to provide desired ethers in moderate to high yields.”
“Finding the source of a fungal infection and selecting the most appropriate treatment for candidemia is often challenging for physicians, especially when the patient has a complex medical history We describe the case of a 48-year-old woman who had persistent candidemia after undergoing explantation of a left ventricular assist device. The source of the infection was found to be a right atrial thrombus. The mass was removed, and the patient underwent aggressive treatment with micafungin. Removal of the right atrial mass, followed by potent antifungal treatment, resulted in a successful recovery (Tex Heart Inst J 2012;39(3):390-2)”
“In forensic science, identifying a tissue where a forensic specimen was originated is one of the principal challenges.
Long-term follow-up angiography in 29 patients (81%) revealed the absence of restenosis, defined as > 50% luminal narrowing, in all of them.\n\nConclusions. The clinical and angiographic long-term outcomes demonstrated here suggest that VA-SA transposition will be Useful in patients CCI-779 mw with symptomatic stenosis of VA origin. (DOI: 10.3171/2008.10.JNS08687)”
of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAA)(n) repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to similar to 160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA
polymerase alpha was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM). Notably, defects in the replicative selleck chemical DNA polymerases delta and epsilon strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase delta mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.”
“Background: Diabetes is a SHP099 price risk factor for perioperative complications after cardiac surgery. We studied its effects on mesenteric endothelial function in a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model.\n\nMethods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into
four groups: sham (D-CPB-), cardiopulmonary bypass (D-CPB+), diabetic (D+CPB-) and diabetic that have undergone CPB (D+CPB+). Two samples of mesenteric artery were used for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) Western blot analysis, and two others for assessing contractile response and endothelium relaxations. Nitrite products and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were assessed as markers of inflammatory response.\n\nResults: We observed an enhanced contractile response to the alpha-adrenergic agonist associated with impairment of mesenteric vasorelaxation in D+CPB+ rats. Western immunoblot analysis of D+CPB+ highlighted an additive effect of hyper-expression of inducible NOS. A significantly increased inflammatory response was observed after CPB in diabetic animals.\n\nConclusions: This work confirms the potential deleterious impact of diabetes on the mesenteric endothelium during CPB in cardiac surgery.”
“The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician’s management of the condition.
the techniques of stable S-34-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline-and D-5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated Blebbistatin purchase uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future.”
“OBJECTIVE-Arachidonic acid is metabolized by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and has an important learn more role in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate whether 12-LOX plays a role in retinal neovascularization (NV).\n\nRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Experiments were performed using retinas from a murine
model of oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy (OIR) that was treated with and without the LOX pathway inhibitor, baicalein, or lacking 12-LOX. We also analyzed vitreous samples from patients with and without proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of 12-LOX, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Liquid chromatography-mass www.selleckchem.com/products/Thiazovivin.html spectrometry was used to assess the amounts of HETEs in the murine retina and human vitreous samples. The effects of 12-HETE on VEGF and PEDF expression were evaluated in Muller cells (rMCs), primary mouse retinal pigment epithelial cells, and astrocytes.\n\nRESULTS-Retinal NV during OIR was associated with increased 12-LOX expression and 12-, 15-, and 5-HETE production. The amounts of HETEs also were significantly higher in the vitreous of diabetic patients with PDR. Retinal NV was markedly abrogated in mice
treated with baicalein or mice lacking 12-LOX. This was associated with decreased VEGF expression and restoration of PEDF levels. PEDF expression was reduced in 12-HETE-treated rMCs, astrocytes, and the retinal pigment epithelium. Only rMCs and astrocytes showed increased VEGF expression by 12-HETE.\n\nCONCLUSIONS-12-LOX and its product HETE are important regulators of retinal NV through modulation of VEGF and PEDF expression and could provide a new therapeutic target to prevent and treat ischemic retinopathy. Diabetes 60:614-624, 2011″
“Circadian rhythms in the sleep/wake cycle, along with a range of physiological measures, are severely disrupted in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Using empirical data from rt-fMRI scans, we assessed the quality of motion correction in this new system. The present
algorithm performed comparably to standard (non real-time) offline methods and outperformed other real-time methods based Caspase inhibitor on zero order interpolation of motion parameters. The modular approach to the rt-fMRI system allows the system to be flexible to the experiment and feedback design, a valuable feature for many applications. We illustrate the flexibility of the system by describing several of our ongoing studies. Our hope is that continuing development of open-source rt-fMRI algorithms and software will make this new technology more accessible and adaptable, and will thereby accelerate its application in the clinical and cognitive neurosciences.”
“Despite the known presence of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in Bangladesh, its prevalence, including records of hospitalization in rural health facilities, is largely unknown. In a systematic surveillance undertaken in two AZD6738 cell line government-run rural health facilities, 457 children, aged less than five years, having acute watery diarrhoea, were studied between August 2005 and July 2007 to determine the prevalence of rotavirus. Due to limited financial support, the surveillance of rotavinis was included as an addendum to an ongoing study for cholera in the same area. Rotavirus infection was
detected in 114 (25%) and Vibrio cholerae in 63 (14%) children. Neither rotavirus
nor V cholerae was detected in 280 (61%) samples; these were termed ‘non-rotavirus and non-cholera’ diarrhoea. Both rotavirus and cholera Selleckchem HDAC inhibitor were detected in all groups of patients (< 5 years). The highest proportion (41%; 47/114) of rotavinis was in the age-group of 6-11 months. In children aged less than 18 months, the proportion (67%; 76/114) of rotavinis was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of cholera (16%; 10/63). By contrast, the proportion (84%; 53/63) of cholera was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of rotavirus (33%; 38/114) in the age-group of 18-59 months. During the study period, 528 children were hospitalized for various illnesses. Thirty-eight percent (202/528) of the hospitalizations were due to acute watery diarrhoea, and 62% were due to non-diarrhoeal illnesses. Rotavirus accounted for 34% of hospitalizations due to diarrhoea. Severe dehydration was detected in 16% (74/457) of the children. The proportion (51%; 32/63) of severe dehydration among V cholerae-infected children was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to the proportion (16%; 18/114) of rotavirus-infected children. The study revealed that 12-14% of the hospitalizations in rural Bangladesh in this age-group were due to rotavirus infection, which has not been previously documented.
There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles for each of these functions and and the funds dedicated to the research.”
“In humans, microsomal epoxide hydrolase Crenolanib purchase (mEH) contributes important biological
functions that underlie both detoxification and bioactivation fates arising from exposures to foreign chemicals. Previously, we discovered that human mEH gene transcription is initiated from alternative promoters. The respective transcripts are programmed with tissue specificity and the upstream E1b promoter contributes predominantly to mEH expression. The results presented demonstrate that exposures to the Nrf2 activators, sulforaphane (SFN) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), markedly activate Bib transcription in human lung and liver cells. Genomic analyses identified two major DNase I hypersensitive regions (HS-1 and HS-2) within the similar to 15 kb intervening sequence separating E1b from the downstream E1 promoter. In BEAS-2B cells, the Nrf2 effectors, SFN and tBHQ selectively activated the more distal HS-2 through an
antioxidant response element (ARE). An activator protein 1/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate interaction was further identified within the HS-2 enhancer that functioned to additionally contribute to ARE-mediated induction responsiveness of the E1b promoter. MI-503 ic50 The results demonstrate that ARE modulation, integrated with additional transcriptional complexes, regulates the
tissue-specific expression of mEH and that these Selleck 3-deazaneplanocin A processes likely coordinate both the protective and bioactivation functions contributed by mEH activities in human tissues. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Endothelial dysfunction is an early event of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can occur before albuminuria. Oxidative stress has been found to play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that increases in plasma advanced oxidized protein products (AOPPs), a family of oxidized, dityrosine-containing protein compounds generated during oxidative stress, could serve as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction in T2D patients without albuminuria. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of 147 newly diagnosed T2D patients (112 without albuminuria and 35 with albuminuria) and 49 age-matched healthy control subjects. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was used to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilator function, and plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) concentrations were determined to evaluate vascular injury. Plasma AOPPs concentrations were measured using a modified spectrophotometric assay.
Himrod, obtained from seedlings grown under chill stress conditions (+10 degrees C in the day and +7 degrees C at night), under optimum conditions (+25 degrees C in the day and +18 degrees C at night) and LDC000067 supplier from seedling which underwent a recover period after the chill stress treatment. The purpose of the study has been to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in phenolic compounds
as well as to demonstrate changes in antiradical properties of extracts from grapevine roots, which appeared as a result of chill stress and during recovery under the optimum conditions following the stress. Phenolic compounds from grapevine roots were extracted using 80% acetone. The total content of phenolics was determined by colorimetry. The content of tannins was tested by precipitation with bovine serum albumin. The reducing power as well as DPPH(center dot) free radical and ABTS(+center dot) cation radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also tested. In order to identify phenolic compounds present in the extracts the RP-HPLC technique was employed. GW2580 The tested material was found to contain tannins and three identified phenolic acids: ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric ones. The latter occurred in the highest concentrations
(from 4.46 to 6.28 mu g/g fresh matter). Ferulic acid appeared in smaller amounts (from 1.68 to 2.65 mu g/g fresh matter), followed by caffeic acid (from 0.87 to 1.55 mu g/g fresh matter). Significantly less total phenolic compounds occurred in roots of seedlings subjected to chill stress. However, the total content of these compounds increased significantly in roots of plants which underwent recovery after chill stress. Concentration of tannins was determined by two methods. The content of condensed tannins was depressed
in roots as a result of low temperature stress, whereas the content of condensed and hydrolysing tannins (determined via the BSA method) rose under chill stress conditions. A significant increase in tannins in root extracts (determined with both methods) was found during the recovery process after the stress. The three identified phenolic acids appeared in grapevine roots as ester-bound compounds. It has been demonstrated that the content Selleck HM781-36B of phenolic acids significantly fell as a result of low temperatures, but increased during recovery after chill stress. The weakest ability to scavenge DPPH(center dot) and ABTS(+center dot) free radicals as well as the reducing power were shown by the extract obtained from grapevine roots from the seedlings subjected to chill stress. Both free radical scavenging activity and reducing power were observed to increase considerably during recovery after stress. This seems to prove that during the recovery process following chill stress the synthesis of antioxidative compounds in grapevine roots is much more intensive.”
“P>1. Larval parasitoids (i.e.
The model predicts circulating concentrations of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, oestradiol, inhibin and progesterone. These hormones collectively provide control check details and feedback mechanisms
between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries, which regulate ovarian follicular dynamics, corpus luteum function and ovulation. When follicular growth parameters are altered, the model predicts that cows will exhibit either two or three follicular waves per cycle, as seen in practice. Changes in other parameters allow the model to simulate: effects of nutrition on follicle recruitment and size of the ovulatory follicle; effects of negative energy
balance on postpartum anoestrus; and effects of pharmacological intervention on hormone profiles and timing of ovulation. It is concluded that this model provides a sound basis selleck screening library for exploring factors that influence the bovine oestrous cycle in order to test hypotheses about nutritional and hormonal influences which, with further validation, should help to design dietary or pharmacological strategies for improving reproductive performance in cattle. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“No studies have examined the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy on new-onset diabetes. In addition, though the combination of diabetes and chronic heart failure (CHF) carries a poor prognosis, few studies have examined predictors of new-onset diabetes in those with CHF.\n\nIn patients
with symptomatically mild CHF who participated in the placebo-controlled Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure, we examined the effect of the aldosterone antagonist, eplerenone, on physician-diagnosed diabetes using univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. To identify predictors of new-onset diabetes (measures of glycaemia were not available), data from trial arms were combined and multivariate Cox proportional learn more hazard analyses and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted. At baseline, the mean age of 1846 initially non-diabetic patients was 69 years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 26. Over 21 months, 69 (3.7) developed diabetes (33 on eplerenone, 36 on placebo). Eplerenone had no effect on new-onset diabetes [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95 confidence interval (CI) 0.591.52] and no effect on the composite of new-onset diabetes or mortality (HR 0.80, 95 CI 0.641.01). Independent predictors of new-onset diabetes included digoxin therapy, higher serum alanine aminotransferase, longer duration of heart failure, current or previous smoker, higher waist circumference, lower age, and higher systolic blood pressure with a combined c-statistic of 0.74.
Additionally, we derive an evidence-based neuropsychological diagnostic procedure for assessing PDD under special consideration of these comorbid aspects.”
“We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed
with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube SIS3 inhibitor containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The
percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2 +/- 1.9, 95.6 +/- 1.1, 62.1 +/- 1.7, 41.8 +/- 0.6, and 74.5 +/- 3.8% at 1 h and 98.5 +/- 1.0, 95.8 +/- 2.6, 77.2 +/- 6.8, 55.5 +/- Nutlin-3 cell line 3.4 and 40.2 +/- 22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P > 0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes
had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni Milciclib ic50 or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs. Nucl Med Commun 31: 430-433 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“A global mass balance (Greenland and Antarctica ice sheet mass loss, terrestrial water storage) and different sea-level components (observed sea-level from satellite altimetry, steric sea-level from Ishii data, and ocean mass from gravity recovery and climate experiment, GRACE) are estimated, in terms of seasonal and interannual variabilities from 2003 to 2010. The results show that a detailed analysis of the GRACE time series over the time period 2003-2010 unambiguously reveals an increase in mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet and Antarctica ice sheet. The mass loss of both ice sheets accelerated at a rate of (392.8 +/- 70.0) Gt/a during 2003-2010, which contributed (1.09 +/- 0.
Several conclusions can be drawn based on the results selleck chemical of the present study. The human SelM gene was successfully expressed at both the transcription and protein levels in the CMV/GFP-hSelM Tg rats. This Tg rat showed a different enzyme activity for the antioxidant protein in the various tissues examined. In response to the 2,2′-azobiz(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) injection, the Tg rats showed a lower level of antioxidant and H2O2 concentration
as the activity of the antioxidant enzyme was maintained at a higher level in the Tg rats than in the non-Tg rats. Also, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased in this Tg rat, even though the level of corticosterone remained unchanged in both genotypes. Thus, the results of this study demonstrated that the CMV/GFP-hSelM Tg rat can serve as an animal model for the maintenance of a high level of antioxidant status and can be used to study the biological function of selenoprotein in infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease and cancer.”
“BACKGROUND\n\nAmbulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed as an indirect measure of arterial stiffness. The aims of Geneticin in vitro this study were (i) to analyze AASI and pulse pressure (PP) in micro- and normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and healthy controls and (ii) to explore the relation between nocturnal blood
pressure (BP) reduction, BP variability, and AASI.\n\nMETHODS\n\nAmbulatory BP monitoring was performed in 34 micro- and 34 normoalbuminuric T1DM patients matched for gender, age, and diabetes duration and in 34 nondiabetic controls matched for gender and age. AASI and PP were calculated based on 24-h, day, and night BP recordings.\n\nRESULTS\n\nAASI increased from the control group (0.30 +/- 0.14) to the normo- (0.35
+/- 0.15) and microalbuminuric group (0.41 +/- 0.19; P < 0.05). After adjustment for nightly systolic BP reduction and systolic daytime BP variability (s.d.) in multivariate analysis, the association weakened and became nonsignificant (P = 0.078). No significant intergroup differences were found when AASI was calculated separately from day and night BP data. There was no significant difference between day and night AASI. The 24-h PP increased from the control group (48 +/- 7 mm Hg) to the normo- (50 +/- 6 mm Hg) and microalbuminuric group (54 +/- 9 mm Hg; Blebbistatin order P < 0.01). The association remained in the multivariate analysis. Day and night PPs were higher in microalbuminuric patients compared to healthy controls.\n\nCONCLUSIONS\n\nAASI and PP are higher in microalbuminuric T1DM patients compared to healthy controls. The nocturnal BP reduction and systolic daytime BP variability are determinants of AASI. We propose these associations to reflect biological characteristics of arterial stiffness.”
“Background\n\nIn stable vitiligo, several techniques of autologous transplantation of melanocytes are used.
Furthermore, NRIP can associate with GR and E2 to form tri-protein complex to activate HPV gene expression via GRE, not the E2-binding site, in a hormone-dependent manner. These results indicate that NRIP and GR are viral E2-binding proteins and that NRIP regulates HPV gene expression via GRE and/or E2 binding site in the HPV promoter in a hormone-dependent or independent manner, respectively. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) has recently been considered as a candidate tumor suppressor in renal and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate
the role of hBD-1 in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its potential as diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for OSCC.\n\nMethods: HBD-1 expression in tissues at different stages of oral carcinogenesis, as well as OSCC Selleckchem PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor cell lines was examined. HBD-1 was overexpressed in HSC-3, UM1, SCC-9 and SCC-25 cells and subjected to cell growth, apoptosis, migration and invasion assays. Tissue microarray constructed with tissues from 175 patients was used to examine clinicopathological significance of hBD-1 expression in OSCC.\n\nResults: HBD-1 expression decreased from oral precancerous lesions to OSCC and was lower in OSCC with lymph node metastasis than
those without metastasis. In vitro, the expression of hBD-1 was related to the invasive potential of OSCC buy U0126 cell lines. Induction of exogenous expression of hBD-1 inhibited migration and invasion of OSCC cells, probably by regulation of RhoA, RhoC and MMP-2; but had no significant effect on proliferation or apoptosis. In a cohort of patients with primary OSCC, cases with no expression of hBD-1 had more chance to be involved in lymph node metastasis. Eventually, the positive
expression of hBD-1 was associated with longer survival of patients with OSCC, NVP-BSK805 ic50 and multivariate analysis and ROC curve analysis confirmed hBD-1 positivity to be an independent prognostic factor of OSCC, especially OSCC at early stage.\n\nConclusions: Overall, these data indicated that hBD-1 suppressed tumor migration and invasion of OSCC and was likely to be a prognostic biomarker and a potential target for treatment of OSCC.”
“Barrett’s esophagus has been divided into three categories based on the extent of the metaplasia: long-segment (LSBE), short-segment (SSBE), and ultrashort-segment Barrett’s esophagus (USBE). While both LSBE and SSBE are thought to be induced by gastroesophageal reflux, the etiology of USBE is still unclear.\n\nWe conducted a case-control study to identify the differences in the pathogenesis between SSBE and USBE in a hospital-based population.