Pain monitoring had definitely improved since 2004 (p < 0 05),

Pain monitoring had definitely improved since 2004 (p < 0.05), but not enough: only 21 and 17% of NICUs routinely assess pain during mechanical ventilation and after surgery, respectively. Conclusion: There have been improvements in neonatal analgesia practices in Italy since national guidelines were published, but pain is still undertreated and underscored, especially during major invasive procedures. It is mandatory to address the gap between the recommendations in the guidelines and clinical practice must be addressed through with effective

quality improvement initiatives.”
“The effects of some factors on the chemotaxis of Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076 and Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 and on their adhesion learn more to cucumber roots have been studied. Glucose chemotaxis and adhesion to roots reach peak values in pH ranges characteristic of each strain. These ranges are 7.0-8.0 for A. vinelandii IMV V-7076 and 6.0-7.0 for B. subtilis IMV V-7023. The adhesion values of each species decrease significantly in their mixed suspension. The interaction of each of the strains with the clay mineral montmorillonite improves their adhesion to cucumber roots. The clay mineral palygorskite improves the adhesion of A. vinelandii HM781-36B purchase but reduces that of B. subtilis.”
“A phase I study

was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics

(PK) and efficacy of the oral histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Six patients received vorinostat (400 mg p.o., once daily). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were evaluated in all six patients during the 28 days of the first cycle. One of the six patients who received vorinostat developed a DLT (grade 4 thrombocytopenia). The most common drug-related adverse events included nausea (4/6, 67%), thrombocytopenia (4/6, 67%), hyperbilirubinemia (3/6, 50%) and vomiting (3/6, 50%). Most of these events were reversible and were resolved by supportive care and/or the interruption of vorinostat treatment. The safety and PK profiles of vorinostat in Japanese patients with CTCL did not appear to differ from Selleck MX69 those previously observed in non-Japanese and Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. None of the patients achieved an objective response in this study. However, one unconfirmed partial response and two cases of sustained stable disease for 12 weeks or longer were observed among the six patients in the study. One of the three evaluable patients experienced pruritus relief. Vorinostat was well tolerated at a dose of 400 mg p.o. once daily and showed potential efficacy in Japanese patients with CTCL, warranting further investigation.

This is the first report of the association of MD with arterioven

This is the first report of the association of MD with arteriovenous fistula of the epiaortic vessels.”
“Melon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop in Turkey, where it is grown in many regions; the most widely planted lines are local winter types belonging to the var. inodorous.

We examined 81 melon genotypes collected from different provinces of Turkey, compared with 15 reference melon genotypes obtained from INRA/France, to determine genetic diversity among Turkish melons. Twenty polymorphic primers were used to generate the SSR markers. PCR amplification was performed and electrophoresis was conducted. SSR data were used to generate a binary matrix. For cluster analysis, UPGMA was employed to construct a clustering dendrogram based on the genetic distance matrix. The

VE 821 cophenetic correlation was compared with the similarity matrix using the Mantel matrix correspondence test to evaluate the representativeness of the dendrogram. A total of 123 alleles were amplified using the 20 SSR primer sets. The number of alleles detected by a single primer set ranged from 2 to 12, with an average of 6.15. The similarity ranged from 0.22 to 1.00 in the dendrogram developed from microsatellite analysis. Based on this molecular data, we concluded that genetic diversity among these Turkish accessions is relatively high.”
“Gelatin FGFR inhibitor nanoparticles (GNPs) and aminated gelatin nanoparticles (AGNPs) were Prexasertib research buy prepared and used as an adjuvant to improve the delivery of tetanus toxoid (TT). Nanoparticles were characterized in vitro for their size, shape, entrapment, and release. TT-FITC conjugate was used to determine entrapment and release from nanoparticles. The immune-stimulating activity was studied by measuring anti-TT IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a isotype and cytokine responses following subcutaneous

(s.c) injection of nanoparticles in BALB/c mice and was compared with alum-TT vaccine. Gelatin and aminated gelatin (AG) specific IgG response was also determined. Both GNPs and AGNPs demonstrated comparable IgG response and a significantly higher (p < 0.05) cytokine response (IL-2 and IFN gamma gamma) as compared to alum-TT vaccine. Nanoparticulate formulations elicited both Th1 and Th2 responses and induced negligible undesirable immunogenicity against the carrier, as demonstrated by lower level of gelatin and AG-specific IgG response as compared to control.</.”
“Wound botulism is a rare infectious disease that is becoming a frequent complication of parental drug use. Diagnosis is often difficult and based on clinical suspicion. We report the first Italian case of wound botulism due to intramuscular heroin injection in a 48-year-old man with an acute onset of slurred speech and dysphagia.

“BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has calle

“BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for closer monitoring of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) complications with specific efforts to distinguish BCG infection from tuberculosis.

OBJECTIVES: To detect the presence of BCG infection using clinical and microbiological approaches.

STUDY DESIGN: Between 2006 and 2008,32 cases, including 30 children with suspected

BCG-related complications and two adults with local skin infections, were referred to our laboratory. The definitive identification of the isolates was based on phenotypic and molecular testing. The genotype profile of the isolates was determined to evaluate the relatedness of the cases.

RESULTS: Molecular microbiological results confirmed the presence of infection due to Mycobacterium bovis LBH589 concentration BCG in 11 patients, of whom 9 were aged 2 months to 6 years and 2 were aged >40 years. Molecular fingerprinting revealed that all isolates were genetically related to each other and to M. bovis BCG Pasteur 1173P2.

CONCLUSION: A high incidence of adverse reactions to the BCG vaccine in the population studied clearly points to the need for a thorough study on the issue. We hope our study will be viewed as an evidence-based document for more precise

risk-benefit evaluation of BCG immunisation MRT67307 manufacturer in immunocompromised patients.”
“Although there are 23 generic levofloxacin (100 mg) tablets (LVFX tablets) and 1 brand name LVFX tablet (supply now discontinued) in Japan, there have been no reports that have evaluated and compared the dissolution profiles of LVFX tablets using the same dissolution method. We studied the dissolution profile of LVFX tablets by the Paddle method, a standard dissolution test method. Among 23 generic LVFX tablets, 2 LVFX tablets had lower dissolution rates and 14 had higher dissolution rates than the brand name LVFX tablet. It is suggested that LVFX tablets have different

dissolution profiles, which could cause different pharmacokinetic profiles.”
“BACKGROUND: A positive tuberculin skin test (TST) may indicate Galardin manufacturer cross-reacting immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and not latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).

OBJECTIVES: To assess misclassification of LTBI, as assessed by skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin (MaS), and to determine how this misclassification affects the analysis of risk factors for LTBI.

METHODS: In a population-based survey, participants underwent skin testing with M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) and MaS. A PPD-dominant skin test was a reaction that was >= 3 mm larger than the MaS reaction; a MaS-dominant skin test was a reaction that was >= 3 mm larger than the PPD reaction.

RESULTS: Of 447 randomly selected persons, 135 (30%) had a positive PPD test. Of these, 21 (16%) were MaS-dominant, and were therefore attributable to NTM and misclassified as LTBI.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Study Design

(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. The effect Selleck Navitoclax of degenerative spondylolisthesis on functional performance and self reported quality of life in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis was compared to patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and no degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Objective. To define the relationship degenerative spondylolisthesis shares

with functional performance and self reported quality of life in patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis.

Summary of Background Data. Neurogenic claudication is a clinical syndrome that reflects symptoms caused by anatomic spinal stenosis. This condition limits functional status and impacts overall health satisfaction. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is one cause of spinal stenosis and is present to different degrees in patients with neurogenic claudication.

Methods. Thirty-eight women and 39 men diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication were prospectively enrolled in the study. All underwent routine, screening side-lying, lateral flexion and extension radiographs. The evaluation included a

shuttle walking test, as well as patient self-assessment using the Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire, and Short Form 36.

Results. The overall walking distance did not differ based on the presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis. No correlation between magnitude of deformity and decreased walking distance check details was identified. Men walked on average 231.3 m (SD: 159.2) and women walked 251.3 m ( SD: 138.4). No statistical difference was noted between men and women and their walking ability ( P < 0.56). The Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire and the Short Form 36 were both strongly correlated with decreased walking ability ( P < 0.05).

Conclusion. The presence and magnitude of degenerative spondylolisthesis does not Silmitasertib in vitro correlate with decreased functional capacity. The Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire

and Short Form 36 are accurate in defining the functional status of a patient. Comprehensive evaluation of patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis using functional assessment and self-assessment questionnaires are helpful in determining the severity of a patient’s disability. Plain radiographs may be valuable adjuncts for surgical decision-making, but are not useful in quantifying the degree to which a patient is impaired.”
“The diagnostic approach to diseases of the mediastinum is divided into two phases: (1) imaging techniques and (2) procedures for obtaining tissue samples for cytologic and histologic examination. The latter has for many years represented a considerable challenge to the clinician. Often invasive procedures in general anaesthesia as mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy have been necessary.

Subtilisin D5 had high degrading activity for the A alpha-chain o

Subtilisin D5 had high degrading activity for the A alpha-chain of human

fibrinogen and hydrolyzed the B beta-chain slowly, but did not affect the gamma-chain, indicating that it is an alpha-fibrinogenase. Subtilisin D5 was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, indicating that it belongs to the serine protease. The specific activity (F/C, fibrinolytic/caseinolytic activity) of subtilisin D5 was 2.37 and 3.52 times higher than those of subtilisin BPN’ and Carlsberg, respectively. Subtilisin D5 exhibited high specificity for Meo-Suc-Arg-Pro-Tyr-pNA (S-2586), a synthetic chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin. The first 15 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence of subtilisin D5 are AQSVPYGISQIKAPA; this sequence is identical to that of subtilisin NAT and subtilisin E.”
“An alarming increase in AZD2014 price the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and

associated diseases can be observed world-wide during the past 20 years. In obesity, profound alterations in the secretion profile of adipokines and inflammatory markers as well as increased lipolysis occur, leading besides other events to elevated levels of free fatty acids, which in turn are distributed to nonadipose tissue such as skeletal muscle. While the amount of intramyocellular lipids can be used as a marker of insulin resistance in physical inactive individuals, these neutral triglycerides themselves are not thought buy MCC950 to be harmful. However, they provide a source for the generation of harmful lipid metabolites such as diacylglycerol and ceramide, which are implicated in insulin resistance by perturbing insulin signaling pathways. In this review, we will discuss the role of lipid metabolites in insulin resistance and potential

mechanism involved in accumulation of intramyocellular lipids. Furthermore, we will highlight the key role of PGC-1 alpha, which is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and coordinates the activation of genes involved in oxidative energy production buy PFTα as well as genes involved in fiber type transformation. Finally, the role of exercise in stimulating PGC-1 alpha activity and expression as well as the release of contraction-induced myokines is discussed.”
“Cerebral recurrence from Mullerian cancer is a rare event and prognosis of patients with such a condition is poor. We report a case of cerebral recurrence from International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification stage IV tubal cancer presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The patient achieved more than 7 years’ disease-free survival after irradiation to the brain despite the inauspicious event. The present case had a rare clinical course in terms of primary site, primary symptom, failure site, and clinical outcome. Patients with brain metastasis from Mullerian cancer have a chance for long-term survival under specified circumstances, such as solitary metastasis, no extracranial metastasis, no recurrence preceding brain metastasis and small tumor size.

The greatest inactivation of S typhimurium occurred in kimchi fe

The greatest inactivation of S. typhimurium occurred in kimchi fermented at 20 degrees C, while L. monocytogenes were inactivated in kimchi fermented at 0 degrees C in situ. This study showed that appropriately fermented kimchi can inactivate various food-borne pathogens and that the fermentation click here temperature of the kimchi is an important factor in determining the ability of the kimchi to inactivate specific pathogens. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) multiplication and organic acids

produced according to LAB metabolism play a role in inactivating food-borne pathogens in kimchi.”
“Objective: To compare infant mortality rates among women with a failed versus successful trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) following labor induction or stimulation.

Study design: Using US linked birth and infant death cohort data (2000-2004), we identified women who delivered non-anomalous singleton births at 34-41 weeks with TOLAC whose labors were Buparlisib in vivo induced or stimulated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were fitted to estimate the association between TOLAC success and infant mortality.

Results: Of the 164,113 women who underwent TOLAC, 41% were unsuccessful. After adjustment

for potential confounding factors, a failed TOLAC was associated with a 1.4 fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7) increased risk of infant mortality.

Conclusions: Among women undergoing labor induction or stimulation, a failed TOLAC is associated with higher likelihood of infant mortality.”
“Degas-driven flow is a novel phenomenon used to propel fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices without requiring any external power. This method takes advantage of the inherently high porosity and air solubility

of PDMS by removing air molecules from the bulk PDMS before initiating the SB203580 purchase flow. The dynamics of degas-driven flow are dependent on the channel and device geometries and are highly sensitive to temporal parameters. These dependencies have not been fully characterized, hindering broad use of degas-driven flow as a microfluidic pumping mechanism. Here, we characterize, for the first time, the effect of various parameters on the dynamics of degas-driven flow, including channel geometry, PDMS thickness, PDMS exposure area, vacuum degassing time, and idle time at atmospheric pressure before loading. We investigate the effect of these parameters on flow velocity as well as channel fill time for the degas-driven flow process. Using our devices, we achieved reproducible flow with a standard deviation of less than 8% for flow velocity, as well as maximum flow rates of up to 3 nL/s and mean flow rates of approximately 1-1.5 nL/s. Parameters such as channel surface area and PDMS chip exposure area were found to have negligible impact on degas-driven flow dynamics, whereas channel cross-sectional area, degas time, PDMS thickness, and idle time were found to have a larger impact.

The synthesized resins showed good physical and handling properti

The synthesized resins showed good physical and handling properties: low viscosity, stability for storage and transportation, and resin applicable by a common sprayer. Particleboard panels bonded with the synthesized resins showed promising

physical properties and significantly lower formaldehyde emission values than those bonded with the urea-formaldehyde resin control. One deficiency observed for the synthesized resins was lower internal bond values, which might be overcome the use of a hot-stacking procedure. Overall, the process of wood liquefaction with limited amounts of phenol as a solvent was shown to have the potential of providing practical, CT99021 clinical trial low-cost PF-type resins with very low formaldehyde emission potentials. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 1436-1443, 2009″
“The electromagnetic behavior of a circular perfect electric conductor waveguide with various magnetoplasma filling configurations has been investigated near the cyclotron resonance region at 77 K with longitudinal magnetic bias. Faraday rotation in the forward and reverse directions along with

the waveguide geometry effect provided the nonreciprocal attenuation to design an isolator for frequencies up to the terahertz region. Based on the finite element method, two-dimensional eigenvalue as well as three-dimensional numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the phenomena. Unprecedented Bindarit cost performance was attained for the coaxial configuration in terms of the bias-to-frequency

ratio. Other configurations were found to have some nonreciprocity as well.”
“The first edition of the Italian diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for primary SC79 headaches in adults was published in J Headache Pain 2(Suppl. 1):105-190 (2001). Ten years later, the guideline committee of the Italian Society for the Study of Headaches (SISC) decided it was time to update therapeutic guidelines. A literature search was carried out on Medline database, and all articles on primary headache treatments in English, German, French and Italian published from February 2001 to December 2011 were taken into account. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses were analysed for each drug. If RCT were lacking, open studies and case series were also examined. According to the previous edition, four levels of recommendation were defined on the basis of levels of evidence, scientific strength of evidence and clinical effectiveness. Recommendations for symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of migraine and cluster headache were therefore revised with respect to previous 2001 guidelines and a section was dedicated to non-pharmacological treatment. This article reports a summary of the revised version published in extenso in an Italian version.”
“The object of this work is to prepare polymer poly(2vinylpyridine), P-2VP, and its salts like P-2VP-HI, P-2VP-HIO(3), and P-2VP-HIO(4).

001, 0 012, 0 033 at grades 5, 7 and 9, respectively) and peer al

001, 0.012, 0.033 at grades 5, 7 and 9, respectively) and peer alcohol use (Ps=0.041, <0.001, <0.001 at grades 5, 7 and 9, respectively). Poor parental supervision was associated with steep escalators at grade 9 (P<0.001) but not the other grades. Attachment to parents was unrelated to alcohol trajectories.

ConclusionsParental disapproval of alcohol use before transition to high school, low school commitment at transition to high school, and sibling and peer alcohol use during adolescence are associated with a higher risk of steep escalations in

alcohol use.”
“Background: We investigated which factors are associated with successful paediatric endotracheal intubation (ETI) on the first attempt in emergency department

(EDs) from multicentre emergency airway registry data.

Methods: We created a multicentre registry NVP-BSK805 of intubations at 13 EDs and performed surveillance over 5 years. Each intubator filled out a data form after an intubation. We defined “”paediatric patients”" as patients younger than 10 years of age. We assessed the specialty and level of training of intubator, the method, the equipment, and the associated adverse Nocodazole events. We analysed the intubation success rates on the first attempt (first-pass success, FPS) based on these variables.

Results: A total of 430 ETIs were performed on 281 children seen in the ED. The overall FPS rate was 67.6%, but emergency medicine (EM) physicians showed a significantly greater success rate of 74.4%. In the logistic regression analysis, the intubator’s specialty was the only independent predictive factor for paediatric FPS. In the subgroup analysis, the EM physicians used the rapid sequence intubation/intubation (RSI) method and Macintosh laryngoscope more frequently than physicians of other specialties. ETI-related adverse events occurred in 21 (7.2%) out of the 281 cases. The most common

adverse event in the FPS group was mainstem bronchus intubation, and vomiting VX-661 mouse was the most common event in the non-FPS group. The incidence of adverse events was lower in the FPS group than in the non-FPS group, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The intubator’s specialty was the major factor associated with FPS in emergency department paediatric ETI, The overall ETI FPS rate among paediatric patients was 67.6%, but the EM physicians had a FPS rate of 74.4%. A well structured airway skill training program, and more actively using the RSI method are important and this could explain this differences. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The nature of the inflammatory change within ruptured AAA has not been extensively reported. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammatory response in non-ruptured and ruptured aneurysms with emphasis On the site of rupture.

Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the r

Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established

and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.”
“Upregulation of vascular B-1 kinin receptor expression Epoxomicin manufacturer has been reported in human atheroma, but its role remains unclear. We examined vasomotor and fibrinolytic responses to selective B-1 and B-2 kinin receptor agonism in the human femoral circulation and correlated responses with femoral arterial plaque load. Femoral arterial cross-sectional area, blood flow and plaque volume were

determined using intravascular ultrasound and Dinaciclib mouse Doppler during selective arterial infusion of Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin (B-1 agonist), bradykinin (B-2 agonist) and sodium nitroprusside in eleven patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. Net release of tissue plasminogen activator was determined across the femoral vascular bed. Mean femoral arterial plaque load was 8.1 (+/- 0.9) mm(3)/mm of vessel. Bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside caused dose-dependent increases in femoral blood flow (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively). Bradykinin caused a dose-dependent increase in net tissue plasminogen activator release (p < 0.05), which was augmented by angiotensin-converting

enzyme inhibition (p < 0.05). There were no correlations between plaque load and bradykinin-mediated vasodilation or tissue plasminogen activator release. Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin had no effect on blood flow or tissue plasminogen activator release. VS-6063 in vitro The vasomotor and fibrinolytic actions of bradykinin in the femoral circulation are mediated solely by the B-2 kinin receptor, irrespective of the presence of atheroma. In keeping with previous data, bradykinin-mediated tissue plasminogen activator release was augmented in the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition consistent with its putative vascular protective effect.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical features, treatments, and results of extensive lip and perioral defects after tumor excision.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with extensive lip and perioral defects who underwent surgical interventions during the 7-year period from April 2005 to April 2012. The reconstructive procedures of lip and perioral defects were mainly performed with regional flaps or free flaps.

A significant reduction in enamel permeability was obtained when

A significant reduction in enamel permeability was obtained when fluoride was combined with CO2 laser treatment, with no difference between fluoride gels. Permeability of eroded enamel may be reduced by combining the application of fluoride gels with CO2 laser irradiation.”
“Background: Stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) represent 2 of the leading causes of death in the United States. The early recognition of risk factors and event symptoms allows for the mitigation of disability or death. We sought to compare subject

knowledge of stroke and MI, assess subject risk for cardiovascular disease, and determine if an association exists HDAC inhibitor between knowledge and risk. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, adult, non-health care professionals were presented with a written knowledge test and risk assessment tool. Subjects were classified into 3 categories of cardiovascular risk. Associations were then calculated between knowledge, risk, and population demographics. Results: Of 500 subjects approached, 364 were enrolled. The subjects were mostly white, middle-aged, and high school educated. Gender and income were evenly distributed. Forty-eight (14%) subjects were identified as ideal risk, 130 (38%) as low risk, and 168 (49%) as moderate/high risk.

MI and stroke OSI-744 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor knowledge scores decreased as cardiovascular risk increased (85%, 79%, and 73% for ideal, low, and moderate/high risk groups, respectively; P < .001). In addition, regardless of risk category, stroke knowledge scores were always lower GDC-0068 inhibitor than heart attack knowledge scores. Conclusions: Knowledge about stroke and MI was modest, with knowledge of MI exceeding that of stroke at every level of risk. Subjects with higher risk were less knowledgeable

about the stroke signs, symptoms, and risk factors than those of MI.”
“BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis postinjection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been rarely reported in adult women.

CASE: A 16-year-old girl developed anaphylaxis after receiving 150 mg of DMPA intramuscularly. She previously had received four injections of DMPA without any adverse reactions, including two earlier doses from the same lot number. She initially was treated in the clinic and was stabilized in the emergency department, with full recovery. She subsequently underwent allergy testing, which was inconclusive, and decided to use the copper intrauterine device for ongoing contraception.

CONCLUSION: Anaphylaxis, a rare complication of DMPA, can occur even if a patient had no adverse reactions from previous injections from the same lot number. (Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:443-5) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318213cd49″
“Objective: To date, all the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) applications have managed to stimulate the inner ear indirectly. Our objective was to present a new VSB application for direct inner ear stimulation.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study.