HypothesisHF in patients with AF is associated with


HypothesisHF in patients with AF is associated with

poor outcomes.

MethodsThis post hoc analysis of RealiseAF, a survey of AF patients, compared symptoms, hospitalizations, management, and AF control in patients with BTSA1 price vs without HF. A total of 10,523 AF patients were analyzed according to presence/absence of HF.

ResultsHistory of HF was present in 45.8%, and in more patients with permanent vs persistent, paroxysmal, or first-episode AF (55.6%, 44.3%, 32.9%, and 29.8%, respectively; P<0.0001). Patients with vs those without history of HF, and patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) vs those with HF and a preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), had more frequent cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and more severe symptoms. Presence vs absence of HF, and HF-REF vs HF-PEF, were associated with lower rates of AF control (54.6% vs 62.8% and 49.3% vs 60.3%, respectively; both P<0.0001). The rate-control strategy was used more frequently in HF patients, particularly those with

HF-REF, than the rhythm-control strategy. CV hospitalizations occurred more frequently in patients with HF than those without (41.8% vs 17.5%; P<0.001) and more frequently in patients with HF-REF than in those with HF-PEF (51.6% vs 35.6%; P<0.0001).

ConclusionsAF patients with HF, particularly HF-REF, experience heavy symptom and hospitalization burdens, and have relatively Sotrastaurin low rates of AF control. Further studies are needed to identify ways to improve the management and treatment outcomes of this very high-risk patient population.”
“A part from nephrolithiasis, renal involvement is rare in the course of Crohn’s disease, particularly glomerulonephritis. On the other hand, while onset of Crohn’s disease is strongly influenced by environmental and genetic factors, little is known regarding influence of these factors on extra intestinal manifestations.

We report a familial case of glomerulonephritis that occurred in a 38-year old woman and her mother, 59 years old SHP099 with a 7-year and a 37 year history of stenosing ileocolonic disease, respectively. Both of them developed peripheral oedema with nephrotic syndrome during the course of their Crohn’s disease while they had no intestinal symptoms and were not receiving any maintenance therapy. Renal function was conserved in the former while the latter developed renal failure and had already small size kidneys on abdominal sonography. Thus, renal biopsy had been performed only in the former patient and had showed membranous glomerulonephritis. Investigations showed no other underlying disease than Crohn’s disease. Through this report we emphasis possible genetic influence on extra intestinal manifestations, particularly glomerulonephritis, in Crohn’s disease patients. (C) 2009 European Crohn’s and Collitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Exposure to radiation doses above 2 Gray (Gy) can cause skin burns.

867) Both mirtazapine and duloxetine significantly improved the

867). Both mirtazapine and duloxetine significantly improved the HRSD and MADRS scores from baseline (P < 0.0001-0.0004). While mirtazapine was superior to duloxetine in the reduction of HRSD scores (P = 0.0421), there was no significant change in MADRS scores in terms of between-group differences (P = 0.171). While selleck chemicals more somnolence was observed with mirtazapine (P = 0.0399), more nausea was associated with duloxetine (P = 0.0089). No serious adverse events were observed for either antidepressant. Mirtazapine and duloxetine were safe and well-tolerated

treatments for Japanese patients with MDD. Double-blind controlled studies are needed to further explore the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine and duloxetine in Japanese patients with MDD.”
“Objective: The EVIDENCE trial concluded that administering high-dose/high-frequency subcutaneous (SC) interferon-beta-1a (IFNb1a) was more effective in preventing relapses among patients

with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) than low-dose weekly intramuscular (IM) IFNb1a after 64 weeks. This analysis utilized discrete-event Simulation (DES) to model the potential longer-term clinical and economic implications of this trial.

Methods: A DES predicting the course of relapsing MS and incorporating the effect of IFNb1a therapy was developed. The model began by randomly reading in actual patient data from the trial to create 1000 patients. Each Simulated patient was replicated – one was assigned to receive SC IFNb1a three times a week and the other to receive GNS-1480 mw IM IFNb1a once a week.

During the simulation, patients may (i) experience relapses, with associated short- and long-term impacts on costs and disability; (ii) develop new T2 lesions detected by a magnetic resonance imaging scan; (iii) discontinue treatment because of adverse events or lack of response; (iv) advance to secondary progressive MS; or (v) die.

Model inputs were mainly obtained from the EVIDENCE trial, but were taken from published literature if they could not be obtained A-1210477 nmr from the trial. Direct medical costs ($US, year 2006 values) to the US payers were primarily obtained by updating a published cost analysis. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% per annum. Extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model results.

Results: Based on 100 replications of 1000 patient pairs over 4 years, SC IFNb1a was predicted to enable more patients to avoid relapse (216 vs 147). Total mean costs per patient (discounted) were $US79 890 with SC IFNb1a versus $US74485 with IM administration, a net increase of $US5405 per patient. However, SC IFNb1a was estimated to prevent 0.50 relapses and save 23 relapse-free days per patient, yielding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $US10755 per relapse prevented and $US232 per relapse-free day gained.

Design: In a controlled study, we randomly assigned 112 older sub

Design: In a controlled study, we randomly assigned 112 older subjects with diabetes or >= 3 CVD risk factors to 3 dietary intervention groups: Med-Diet with supplemental virgin olive oil (VOO), Med-Diet with supplemental nuts, and low-fat diet. Changes from baseline in cellular and serum inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at 3 mo.

Results: One hundred six participants (43% women; average age: 68 y) completed the study. At 3 mo, monocyte expression of CD49d, an adhesion molecule crucial for leukocyte

homing, and of CD40, a proinflammatory ligand, decreased (P < 0.05) after both Med-Diets but not after the low-fat diet. Serum interleukin-6 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, inflammatory learn more mediators crucial in firm adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial surfaces, decreased (P, 0.05) in both Med-Diet groups. Soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 and C-reactive protein decreased only after the Med-Diet with VOO (P < 0.05), whereas interleukin-6, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 increased (P < 0.05) after the low-fat diet.

Conclusions: Med-Diets supplemented with VOO or nuts down-regulate cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers related to atherogenesis in subjects at high risk of CVD. The results support the recommendation of the Med-Diet as a useful tool against CVD. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;

89: 248-56.”
“The effects of induced mutation produced by five different doses of gamma irradiation (20, 25, 30, 40, and 45 Gy) Ro-3306 cost were determined using molecular approaches in Vitis vinifera cultivars, namely Thompson Seedless (Sultani Cekirdeksiz) (progenitor of seedless vinifera variety) and Kalecik Karasi (one of the CP-868596 nmr best quality wine grape variety of Turkey). Mutant candidates were selected through morphological observations of mutation-induced phenotypic changes during the first, second and third vegetation periods after radiation applications. Amplification studies started with 50 primers (expressed sequence tags) applied to the mutated

individuals. Only 15 of these primers revealed polymorphic profiles. Twenty-two candidate mutants of Thompson Seedless and Kalecik Karasi, selected based on morphological observations, were analyzed with 15 single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers, together with 46 control plants. Polymorphic bands were rarely obtained in the SSCP analysis, and they were not reproducible.”
“Objective-To examine outcome data for cats and dogs with congenital internal hydrocephalus following treatment via ventriculoperitoneal shunting to determine treatment-associated changes in neurologic signs, the nature and incidence of postoperative complications, and survival time.

Design-Retrospective multicenter case series.

Animals-30 dogs and 6 cats with congenital internal hydrocephalus (confirmed via CT or MRI).

Arising from remodeling of both the mitral valve annulus and the

Arising from remodeling of both the mitral valve annulus and the left ventricle, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity. In selected patients, cardiac resynchronization therapy helps to reduce functional mitral regurgitation, but surgical intervention remains the mainstay of therapy when medical therapy for left ventricular dysfunction has been inadequate. It is, however, JQ1 associated with significant perioperative risks and does not alter long-term mortality. Percutaneous devices, and more recently

the Mitraclip in particular, represent a promising alternative that can improve symptoms and ventricular remodeling with significantly lower periprocedural risk.”
“Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a growing problem in HIV-infected patients in developing countries, where there is scarce data about this co-infection. Our objectives were to analyze the main features and outcomes of HIV-infected patients with TBM.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected Brazilian patients admitted consecutively for TBM. All patients had Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Presenting clinical and laboratory features were studied. Multivariate analysis was used to identify

variables associated learn more with death during hospitalization and at 9 months after diagnosis. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: We included 108 cases (median age 36 years, 72% male). Only 15% had fever, headache, and meningeal signs simultaneously. Forty-eight percent had extrameningeal tuberculosis. The median CD4+ cell count was 65 cells/mu l. Among 90 cases, 7% had primary resistance to isoniazid and 9% presented multidrug-resistant strains. The overall

mortality during hospitalization was 29% and at 9 months was 41%. Tachycardia and prior highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were associated with 9-month mortality. The 9-month survival rate was 22% (95% confidence interval 12-43%).

Conclusions: Clinical and laboratory manifestations were unspecific. Disseminated tuberculosis and severe immunosuppression were common. Mortality was high and the 9-month survival rate was low. Tachycardia and prior HAART were associated with death within 9 months of diagnosis. (C) 2009 International VRT752271 Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formed by sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) and chitosan was prepared as a candidate material for colon-specific drug delivery system. It was found in experiments that the properties of two raw materials and the process parameters, such as the degree of substitution (DS) and concentration of NaCS, the viscosity and concentration of chitosan, were very important factors on the properties of the final product-NaCS-chitosan-PEC.

ConclusionsMost patients and family caregivers valued and expecte

ConclusionsMost patients and family caregivers valued and expected family involvement in TDM. However, there is little explicit agreement in regard to which party in the dyad should

take decisional leadership and who should play a supporting role. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Different emotions activate different parts of the brain, and different parts of the brain direct actions-intentions as well as attention (AIA) to different portions of space. This pilot study attempted to learn how different emotions elicited by emotional memories altered the voluntary spatial allocation of AIA. Twenty normal participants were asked to mark a large sheet of paper in any place of their choosing A-769662 in vitro following recollection of seven types of emotional memories. The results suggest click here that different emotional memories- experiences can influence the spatial allocation of AIA with positive emotional memories

inducing a distal or superior bias and sad memories inducing a proximal or inferior bias. Although these results support the hypotheses that emotions can influence the spatial direction of AIA, these preliminary results need replication and further exploration. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2010; 22:338-344)”
“Purpose: To evaluate an author-developed normalization algorithm for quantitative imaging of optical molecular probes through blood and to assess, in the rat aorta after focal aortic injury, the feasibility of measuring protease activity by using this method.

Materials and Methods:

This study was performed according to a protocol approved by the institutional animal care committee. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the pair of near-infrared (NIR) dyes that was best suited for the normalization algorithm. The authors tested the correction method in vitro and in vivo by www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html injecting free dye mixtures intramurally in the aortas of four rats. The potential clinical utility was then evaluated by applying the method to the endovascular measurement of protease activity in a rat model of focal aortic injury.

Results: When the Monte Carlo simulation was used in the normalization algorithm, it was predicted that the intensities of signals from two NIR dyes would vary +/- 3% across 1 mm of blood compared with the intensity of the raw fluorochrome signal, which would vary +/- 60%. This result was validated in vitro. Endovascular imaging of free dye collections revealed that clinically relevant, uncontrollable differences in the amount of blood intervening between the imaging catheter and the dye collection precipitated dramatic variations in raw NIR fluorescence.

There is an inverse relationship between lumbar lordosis and LSP

There is an inverse relationship between lumbar lordosis and LSP height.”
“Obesity, particularly Panobinostat cost abdominal obesity, is associated with increased risks of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, coronary artery disease, stroke and mortality. Weight loss surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, mainly because medical and dietary treatments have been proven insufficient in the long run. Our primary end point was to study the gender effect on vascular responsiveness (endothelial function

and the ankle brachial index [ABI]) 3 months post bariatric surgery. Our secondary end points were to study the effect of gender on antropometric parameters (BMI, waist circumference) and chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension) 3 months following bariatric surgery, and to find independent variables that may affect and predict the post-operative clinical outcome. Methods: In this prospective study, patients were CYT387 in vivo evaluated one day before surgery and 3 months afterwards. Ankle brachial index was measured while the patient was supine after 15 minutes rest and measurement of the systolic blood pressure in all four extremities was done. The brachial artery method was used to measure endothelial function expressed as flow mediated diameter percent change (FMD %).

FMD% more than 10% is considered a normal response. Results: Compared with diabetic females, diabetic males had a higher postoperative BMI (men with diabetes mellitus did not lose weight as much as diabetic women) (beta=-0.299; P=0.04), while women with diabetes mellitus had a more significant reduction in BMI postoperatively (beta=+0.287; P=0.04). Following bariatric surgery, 12 of the 21 patients with diabetes mellitus type II did not need any medications for diabetes (kept

HbA1c% less than 6.5%). All other diabetic patients improved their diabetes mellitus status. Women significantly improved their ABI (average increase of 0.07, p=0.04) and their endothelial function (FMD% change was improved from -3.5 +/- 9.0% to 14.8 +/- 8.1%, an improvement of 18.3%, p < 0.001). Systolic blood pressure was decreased significantly (by 6.6 mmHg, p=0.04). Men improved their endothelial function YH25448 (FMD% change was improved from -1.3 +/- 10.1% to 11.7 +/- 6.2%, p < 0.001), but no significant change was observed in systolic blood pressure (p=0.29) nor in ABI (P=0.8). A linear regression analysis found that a higher baseline FMD% significantly predicted a higher postoperative FMD% (beta=0.294, P=0.03). In obese males, the higher the baseline BMI the worse the post operative endothelial function (beta=-0.921, Pd < 0.001) and the same adverse effect was documented for hypertensive men (beta=-0.380, P=0.05). For females, the higher the baseline FMD% the higher the postoperative FMD% (beta=+0.397; P=0.01) [a favorable outcome].

gov as NCT00493012 Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1321-7 “
“An amph

gov as NCT00493012. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1321-7.”
“An amphoteric water-soluble copolymer, i.e., poly(methacrylate-co-N-(4-vinylbenzyl)-N,N-dimethylglycinate) JIB-04 manufacturer (PMV) was synthesized and used as a dispersion agent for barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) (BT) particles. PMV was prepared from methacrylic acid and N-(4-vinylbenzyl)-N,N-dimethylglycinate in basic conditions through free radical Polymerization. The structure of this copolymer was verified by its IR and (1)H-NMR spectra. The dispersing effects of PMV were examined

and evaluated through viscosity and sedimentation measurements. The results indicate that this copolymer could uniformly disperse the particles, make the resulting suspensions less viscous and more stabilized. The dispersing ability of PMV is better than that of a commercial dispersant, ammonium polymethacrylate (PMAAN). Accordingly, the BT compacts with PMV exhibit higher dielectric constant values than those with PMAAN. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 1920-1928, 2010″
“Background: The role of maspin has been discussed controversially buy JQEZ5 in different tumors. In the majority of malignant tumors, maspin seems to act as a tumor suppressor. However, data about maspin expression as well as its function in melanoma are very inconsistent.

Objective: To investigate the expression

of maspin in melanomas and to correlate the intensity of maspin staining with prognostic parameters of the tumor and with progression-free and overall survival.

Patients and Methods: Primary melanomas from 47 patients were investigated for maspin expression using immunohistochemistry.

Results: Maspin was heterogeneously expressed predominantly in the cytoplasm Dinaciclib molecular weight of melanoma cells. Maspin staining intensity in the invasive part of the tumor correlated with parameters of prognosis such as Clark level (p = 0.05), tumor thickness (p = 0.002) and stage of disease (p = 0.023). Maspin staining intensity in the invasive front of the tumor significantly correlated with death from disease (p = 0.007) and shortened overall survival (p = 0.007).


In accordance with data concerning maspin expression in colorectal cancers, the expression of this protein in the invasive front of primary melanomas seems to correlate with local infiltration and tumor aggressiveness. Strong maspin expression in the invasive margin of primary melanomas therefore might reflect an aggressive tumor phenotype.”
“The electronic structures of SrMn1-xRuxO3 (0 <= x <= 1) have been investigated by employing soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The measured Mn 2p XAS spectra for SrMn1-xRuxO3 show that the valence states of Mn ions change monotonically from Mn4+ for x=0 to similar to Mn3+ for x=0.8, suggesting that the valence states of the substituted Ru ions are higher than 4+. The Ru 3p XAS spectra of SrMn(1-x)RuxO(3) show the existence of pentavalent Ru5+ ions for the low x value.

In three patients with petro-clival meningiomas, the abducens ner

In three patients with petro-clival meningiomas, the abducens nerves were completely transected during surgery, and one was reconstructed using fibrin glue. This patient remarkably

recovered from the abducens nerve palsy within 2 years.

The abducens nerve palsies in pituitary adenomas and trigeminal schwannomas showed a better clinical course compared to those in skull base meningiomas. The abducens nerve palsies that occur with skull base meningiomas are less likely to recover. Nevertheless, it is important to preserve the nerves and to perform surgical repair if the nerve is transected.”
“In this work, Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite thin film is deposited on Si substrate by radio frequency sputtering to form a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. It click here is found that the current conduction at low fields is greatly enhanced with temperature. The current increase can NVP-BSK805 be attributed to the decrease in the tunneling resistance and/or the formation of some tunneling paths due to the release of some measurement-induced charges trapped in the thin film as a result of increase in the temperature. The current conduction evolves with a trend toward a three-dimensional transport as the temperature increases. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3663313]“
“Clinical correlations between bacterial infections and rejection suggest a

hypothesis that innate immune stimulation by bacterial infections results in the production of inflammatory cytokine that facilitate bystander T-cell activation, increased alloreactivity and inhibition of tolerance induction. Previous studies demonstrated that IFN beta produced during an infection with a model bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, prevented the induction of transplantation tolerance in mice with anti-CD154 and donor-specific transfusion (DST) (<link rid=”"b1″”>1). We investigated the impact of two clinically relevant bacterial infections at the time of transplantation on the ability

of anti-CD154 and DST to selleck compound induce skin allograft acceptance in mice. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infection prevented skin allograft acceptance whereas maximally tolerated doses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection had no effect. SA induced an acute production of IL-6, which was necessary and sufficient for the prevention of skin allograft acceptance. Furthermore, a single pulse of methylprednisolone modulated IL-6 production during SA infection and facilitated skin allograft acceptance in SA-infected recipients. Taken together, our results suggest that bacterial infections elicit specific proinflammatory cytokines signatures that can serve as barriers to tolerance induction, and that inhibiting the production of or neutralizing these inflammatory cytokines can synergize with costimulatory blockade-based therapies to facilitate the development of transplantation tolerance.

In the cadaver limbs, methylene blue solution did not extend to t

In the cadaver limbs, methylene blue solution did not extend to the proximal suspensory ligament


Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In horses, LPBs resulted in minimal proximal diffusion of anesthetic agent from the injection sites. Limbs should be aseptically prepared prior to LPB administration because inadvertent intrasynovial injection may occur. (J Am Vet Med Fer-1 cost Assoc 2011239:1334-1340)”
“Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation and prothrombin G20210A mutation are common hereditary risk factors for venous thrombosis. In the current study, 40 patients (mean age +/- standard deviation, 35 +/- 11 years) and 764 healthy control subjects (mean age +/- standard deviation, 37 +/- 14 years) were enrolled to assess the potential role of these mutations in the manifestation of thrombotic microangiopathies. Compared with controls, neither the heterozygous FVL mutation (7.5% vs 8.5%; P = 1) nor the heterozyous prothrombin mutation 9 (2.5% vs 2.8%; P = 1) was more

prevalent in the patients. The findings do not support a significant role of FVL and prothrombin mutations as risk factors for the manifestation of thrombotic microangiopathies. Thus, screening for these mutations does not allow the identification of individuals at increased risk for these rare thrombotic disorders.”
“Background: A growing number of studies have shown that education is a work context in which professionals (teachers) seem likely to suffer from burnout that may be GSK1210151A associated with low levels of mental health. Although there is a demonstrated need to improve the mental health and burnout levels among teachers, little is known about their mental health status, particularly with respect to graduating class teachers in remote mountain p38 MAPK signaling areas with undeveloped economies. The purpose of this study was to survey mental health and burnout among graduating class teachers in remote mountain areas and to examine the influence of moderating variables.

Methods: We conducted a multilevel analysis of 590 graduating class teachers from 42 primary and secondary schools in remote

mountain areas of Guangdong province in the People’s Republic of China. The outcome variable of self-reported mental health was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and burnout was measured by the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory for primary and secondary school teachers.

Results: The status of both mental health and burnout among the respondents was significantly more troubling than the national norm used as a reference (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Each factor in the SCL-90 had a significant correlation with burnout (P<0.01). All factors of the SCL-90 were entered into the regression equation for each dimension of burnout (P<0.01). The factor having the greatest impact on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization was anxiety (beta 0.187 and 0.178, respectively).

It is not clear if these changes are associated with an increased

It is not clear if these changes are associated with an increased risk of significant symptoms. Fluid removal can reverse these abnormalities and their associated symptoms.”
“Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep-related movement disorder commonly involving an unpleasant urge to move the limbs, typically the legs. Dopaminergic agents represent the first-line therapy for RLS; however, long-term use of such drugs results in worsening symptoms due to “”augmentation”" or other adverse events. selleck Gabapentin, an analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is an anticonvulsant/analgesic agent. Gabapentin is only mildly effective in relieving RLS symptoms,

perhaps a result of its poor absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gabapentin enacarbil is a prodrug of gabapentin specifically designed to enhance absorption via the GI tract, and hence provide improved circulating levels of gabapentin on metabolism. Clinical trials to date have demonstrated favorable safety and (compared to traditional gabapentin) improved pharmacokinetics and efficacy in treating RLS symptoms. Thus, gabapentin enacarbil may prove to be a useful

drug in treating RLS. An application of gabapentin enacarbil for treatment of RLS is currently pending Nirogacestat research buy with FDA for approval.”
“Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) can prevent chemical and colitis-associated Dihydrotestosterone colon carcinogenesis by unknown mechanism(s). One of the processes underlying the chemopreventive action could be the inhibition of proliferation by UDCA. To clarify the antiproliferative

mechanism of UDCA, we used p53(wt) colon carcinoma cell lines HCT8 and HCT116. UDCA-induced inhibition of proliferation was reversible and was associated with a decrease of the S-phase and an increase of G1 phase population, but not with apoptosis or senescence. The treatment suppressed the expression of c-Myc protein and, as a consequence, of several cell cycle regulatory molecules, including CDK4 and CDK6. Using the HCT8 cell line as a model, we show that UDCA suppresses c-Myc at the protein level. The suppression of c-Myc alone or a simultaneous suppression of CDK4 and of CDK6 kinase is sufficient to inhibit cell proliferation. In sum, we identified c-Myc as a primary UDCA target in colon carcinoma cells. The degradation of c-Myc protein decreases the expression of the cell cycle regulators CDK4 and CDK6, which reversibly slows down the cell cycle. The suppression of these proproliferatory molecules is the likely initial mechanism of antiproliferatory action of UDCA on colon cancer cells. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 21:413-422 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Presurgical psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates includes some form of standardized psychological assessment.